SCIENCE IN UZBEKISTAN
In accordance with the high demand towards the quality of teaching, the teaching personnel are now trained to the Ph.D. level. The High Attestation Committee was created. Currently there are more than 4,000 post-graduate students in Uzbekistan. Approximately 45 percent of scientists and pedagogical staff are doctors or candidates of sciences.
In order to increase the qualifications of the teaching staff, 23 institutes, 16 colleges, 4 centers and 14 courses for raising the proficiency level of attendees were established in the country.
In the field of education, Uzbekistan actively develops cooperation with international organizations, such as ACCELS, IREX, Consortium of American Colleges, the Peace Corps, DAAD, the Conrad Adenauer Fund, the British Council, the Saud Al-Baltin Fund, and other nongovernmental organizations.
The science in Uzbekistan ascends to very ancient times. It has deep and powerful roots and extends many centuries, as it served the Uzbek nation and the whole of mankind by providing great innovations in the secrets of nature, medicine, philosophy, law, geology, and literature. Many doctors, scientists, and philosophers from Central Asia have brought great innovations and provided a huge contribution to the world civilization.
In Uzbekistan the first centers of scientific innovation were created a long time ago. Central Asia was one of the centers of world knowledge in the 9-llth centuries. In Uzbek cities such as Bukhara, Samarkand, and Urgench, astronomical observatories and libraries emerged, known as the Houses of Wisdom,* where gatherings of scientists discussed questions of philosophy, math, medicine, etc.
In the 9th-15th centuries, significant developments were achieved in the field of natural sciences.
The importance of the encyclopedic labor of the great scientist, the mukhaddith Al Bukhary, is very significant.
Islamic scientists have agreed that his collection olakhadith (sayings, deeds, orders of the Prophet Muhammad) Al-Jamia as-Sakheekha is the second most important source of Islam after the holy book of Quran.
Without Muhammad Muso Al-Khorazmy it is impossible to imagine the development of modern math. He founded the bases of algebra, and named it. In the 12th century his works served as the basic manual on algebra in the countries of Europe. His name entered mathematics as the indication of arithmetic numbers trhough Indian numbers (Latin writing Algoritbmi), and later as algorithm.
In the same period, Akhmad Ferghany – astronomer, mathematician, and geographer – created the treatise Madkhal un-Nujum (Beginning of astronomy), which brought him a world-recognition, and rendered a significant influence on the development of trigonometry. In Europe, he was known by the name of Alfraganus. In Cordoba, Spain, he created a center for science and launched a university.
Deep traces in the history of civilization have left Abu Ali ibn Sino as a scientist, philosopher, doctor, and musician. In philosophy, he continued Eastern traditions of Arabic Aristotelian logic, and his treatises were extraordinarily popular in the East and West. He was the doctor and minister under various rulers. His famous multi-volume treatise Basics of Medical Science” has remainedas the desktop book for many doctors of the world for many centuries. His westernized name, Avicenna, is perceived as a symbol for a wise person of medicine.
Abu Nasr Muhammad Faraby – a progressive philosopher, scientist, representative of Oriental Aristotelian logic, and author of more than 160 treatises – created auniversal philosophical system of ontology, epistemology, logic and social sciences, based on the doctrines of Aristotle, while at the same time being under the strong influence of Islamic doctrines. A nickname – the Second teacher is derived after Aristotle, on whose doctrines Faraby is said to have commented.
A scientist in Central East, Abu Raikhan Beruny, was the first to claim that the Earth circles around the Sun. Beruny was also known for his fundamental research in the fields of geology, astronomy, mathematics, mineralogy, and pharmacology. The “Academy of Ma’mun” was established in the 10th century in Khorezm, where the leading scientists, led by Beamy, worked.
The outstanding scientific innovations in the field of natural sciences, especially in mathematics, are connected with the name of the state scientist, Mirzo Ulughbek (grandson of Amir Temur). As the brilliant organizer of a science, he attracted scientists from different countries around the world. Upon his initiative, an observatory was established in Samarkand, which embodied the uniqueness and prowess of the scientific ideas of the Middle Ages.
Many scientists such as Jamshid Kashy, Kazizade Rumy, Muin ad-din Kashany, Salakhiddin Musavy and Ali Kuschi took part in the creation of this outstanding observatory.
Ulughbek is known not only as an astronomer and mathematician, but also as a connoisseur of the classic Persian and Arabic literature, music, and history. The main work of Ulughbek, which brought him a worldwide recognition, is known as “Ziji Kuragony”, a fine example of human geniality.
One of the significant writings of the early 16th century is “Bobumoma”. This autobiography by Zakhiriddin Muhammad Bobur is full of detailed descriptions of flora and fauna of the Ferghana Valley.
At the beginning of the 10-llth centuries, Sufism became widely popular in Maveranakhr. The founder of one of the paths in Sufism was the Central Asian poet and missionary, the author of spiritual poems, entitled “Khikmat”, Akhmad Yassavy.
The founder of sophist honor, Khakiki, Khakim at-Termizy, was the author of more than 30 compositions of mystic-philosophical poems and the first historic-biographic work about Sufism and sophists.
The invasion of Genghis-Khan in the 13th century resulted in a great decline of culture. Nevertheless, the renaissance of cultural life began in the 14-I5th centuries, and is connected with the name and activity of Amir Temur, who created a strong, centralized government and strengthened the economic potential of the country. Amir Temur effectively promoted the development of culture, science and art.
The great schools of art emerged in the region where famous representatives of literature and arts, such as Kazizade Rumy, Jamshid al-Kashy, Sadriddin Taftazani, Jurjany, Ulughbek, and others worked and studied.
The works of Alisher Navoi and Abdurakhman Jamy played enormous importance in the development of social-political life. The poetry as well as philosophical and historical treatises by Alisher Navoi widely developed and propagated the advancement of art, and its aesthetic principles on the basis of a further deepening of philosophy, pantheism and rationalism.
Forming the basis for the acceleration of economic and social progress, science in modern Uzbekistan created a powerful intellectual potential, which finds a practical application in many spheres of life. Today Uzbekistan is a large center of science, having an advanced research material base, extensive scientific funds and trained personnel.
The research complex of Uzbekistan includes 362 organizations of academic, research and branch structure, including 101 research institutes, 55 research divisions at higher educational institutions, 65 design organizations, 32 research-and-production associations and experimental enterprises, and 30 information centers.
The foundation for the scientific potential of Uzbekistan: is the Academy of Sciences, which has been a scientific and experimental center in the region since its establishment in 1943.
The structure of the Academy of Sciences includes the following scientific services: physics-mathematical and technical sciences, chemistry-biological sciences and earth sciences, social-humanitarian sciences, international relations and foreign investments, and also the Karakalpakstan-based branch.
The publishing house “Fan” and fundamental library also operate under the administration of the academy structure. It has 11 scientific and 1 popular-scientific magazines, and there are 140 official members (academicians) at the academy.
At the Academy, several institutions operate successfully, such as the institutes of nuclear physics, genetics and experimental biplogy, scientific association Physics – Sun, a complex of mountain observatories in the Maidanak Mountains.
Currently, about 46,000 people, including 2,800 doctors of science and more than 16,100 candidates of science are engaged in a sphere of science. To promote the growth of the young scientific personnel with high qualifications, the High Attestation Commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan was established, which supervises the preparations of the scientific staff in 20 branches.
At the moment, Uzbek scientists carry out fundamental and applied research in many directions of modern science. World-class scientific schools are being established and successful research in various directions is being carried out.
Research in areas of mathematics, probability and statistics, mathematical modeling of natural and public processes, computer science and computer facilities are common.
Achievements of mathematicians in the theories of probabilities and mathematical statistics, differential equations and mathematical physics, and functional analysis are widely known.
Uzbekistan has a special school in astronomy laid out by Ulughbek. At the ancient times world recognition has fallen on Uzbek scientists on astronomy, the study of stars and their movement directions. They made the first precise map of the universe and its stars.
Alongside scientists and experts from the United States, Italy, and Japan, the Uzbek scientists are now undertaking research at the Kitob international latitude station in Kashkadarya province.
Also, the research connected to geological science and geo-physics is under way. Scientists are also studying the earth sciences.
Geologists in the field of complex geologic-geophysical active zones have conducted research and theoretical work.
Also, Uzbek geologists took part in discovery, study and exploration of the largest deposits of mineral resources.
EDUCATION IN UZBEKISTAN
A proper development of an individual, extending his/her well-being, offering him/her a high quality education, as well as change of obsolete stereotypes of thinking and social behavior, is the main purpose and driving force of fundamental transformations in Uzbekistan.
Early days of Uzbek independence saw the necessity for changes in the sphere of education and cadres training, upbringing younger generations, and extending intellectual potential of the country.
President Islam Karimov personally initiated the National Program for Cadres Training. The basic principle of the cadres training given the new realities is a priority of education that primarily envisions its development, new public attitude towards education, knowledge and intelligence vis-a-vis modern legal and market relations. Other important parameters include the continuity of education, which is ensured through constant development and updating of general educational and professional training, continuity of science and production, respect for national history and traditions, as well as preservation and enrichment of culture, and so on.
According to the law “On education” of 1992 and other normative acts, a number of new universities and specialized institutes were established in the country. The system of tests was introduced as the main entrance examination to higher and special educational institutions.
Amendments were introduced with structure and content of economic and other educational curricula. Leading educational institutions, where the economics is taught, are extended with business schools being established there. Business and marketing centers, centers at high schools, network of colleges with specialized teaching are on the rise in the county. Also, specialized lyceums are established at high schools.
Adoption of the National Program for Cadres Training promotes cardinal reforms in the entire system of education.
At the level of preschool education the program provides creation of conditions for spiritual and moral education, effective preparation of the youth for the school.
Starting from the age of three, the preschool education is carried out in family environment and kindergartens until the age of six. The network of the home-based kindergartens and the “from-kindergarten-to-school” programs are developing nationwide. Annually nearly 250,000 children are taught in specialized centers, preparatory groups in kindergartens, and weekend schools. More than 1000 groups on teaching children foreign languages, music, art, and computer courses operate in the country.
Primary Education includes 1st to 4th grades and begins at the age of 6 or 7 years. Centers on professional orientation and determination of a level of preparation are created on the basis of all regional (urban) departments of educational bodies.
General Education is obligatory for everyone. It begins at the age of 10-11 years. General education is structured to develop the intellectual and moral potential of the young generation. Different approaches to training students according to their abilities and opportunities are considered.
Most schools have computer equipment. The Modem system is introduced to improve the educational level at all schools, and introduce the students to Internet access. Students are successfully participating in international and republican Olympiads on different subjects. Winners of these competitions are awarded privileges of various kinds.
In comprehensive schools, a great deal of attention is paid to the study of foreign languages such as English, French, German, Spanish and Eastern languages.
A network for new types of schools and general educational centers is developing. Lyceums function.
The programs such as Soglom Avlod Uchun, Manaviyat va marifat, Economical education, Village schools, Rehabilitation of students with different diseases are realized in the country.
More than 6 million students attend schools, and there are nearly 450,000 teachers nationwide.
To increase the authority of teachers in Uzbekistan, the President of Uzbekistan has decreed October 1st as “Teachers-Day”. This day is celebrated annually as a national holiday, and some teachers are awarded high government awards on this occasion.
Professional training continues for about three years and is built on the basis of specialized schools and operates in academic schools and professional colleges.
Intellectual development is provided in academic schools for talented students. In professional colleges, along with fundamental and general educational preparation, students learn skills of modern trades and receive profound theoretical knowledge of various disciplines. All general education (9+3=12) is compulsory.
Governmental standards of education, which include basic educational programs are tested in secondary schools, academic lyceums, and professional colleges nationwide.
The Center of secondary specialized and professional education operates at the Ministiy of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education where new educational institutions for the specific national model of a three-year educational system are being considered.
Higher education usually begins at the age of 18-19-years and continues for at least four years. It is divided into two stages -Bachelor’s and Master’s Courses.
Bachelor’s Course is the first stage of higher education. The training lasts no less than 4 years and is completed with the reception of a diploma of higher education and specialty.
Master’s Course – Higher education course on particular specialty, proceeding for two years on the basis of a Master’s degree. A degree is obtained after a state exam and dissertation.
Ph.D. Course is the final stage where a maximum of 3 years of study is necessary to receive a candidate degree. Three additional years of research is required to obtain a Doctor’s degree, Ph.D.
Higher education system of Uzbekistan consists of 61 institutions, including 17 universities and 42 institutes. More than 200,000 students attend, and 18,500 teachers work in higher education institutions, of which 52 percent are doctors and candidates of sciences.
Progressive methods for the placement of new students at educational institutions are considered on the basis of various tests and methods of evaluation of their knowledge.