Culture

Culture

Uniqueness, Diversity and Interinfluence of National Cultures as factors of spiritual progress in society
By Nigina Ergasheva, UT

Diversity is a wealth that enriches cultural and spiritual heritage of different peoples. The territory of Uzbekistan has always been considered one of the centers of world civilization where interchange of many cultures has taken place for centuries. Not only has the Uzbek people’s culture absorbed other cultures’ positive experience but also enriched them considerably and served as an impulse for their further development.

culture1These traditions continue developing these days. National and religious tolerance have been qualities inherent since ancient times in the Uzbek people, educated in the humanistic traditions of great ancestors. One of unique features of Uzbekistan is not least in its multinationality, but in the fact that representatives of various ethnic groups living in the republic maintain their identity and live as one nation, one family, while the source of democratic development is the commitment of our multinational people to universal values. Nowadays tolerance is raised to the state policy level on the background of intensive self-identification process and revival of spiritual values. This is proved by the following words by the President Islam Karimov: “Ethnic, cultural and religious tolerance of our people is another inexhaustible source of spiritual renaissance. Tolerance has become the naturally imperative norm for protection from everyday stresses as well as for further development.”

History

Our region is unique in many aspects. Initially, its culture had an integral character that was very complicated and varied in terms of influence of different cultures. The history of our land keeps many ethnic layers and resettlements as it is situated on the crossroads of the most important sections of the Great Silk Road. It was the major route where the exchange of ideas, cultures, outlooks, various humanitarian contacts took place. Uzbekistan served as a bridge to connect East and West for many centuries. Such worldwide known scientists as Ibn Sino, Al-Khorazmiy, Al-Beruniy, Al-Farg’oniy, Alisher Navoiy, Mirzo Ulug’bek, Bahouddin Naqshbandiy, Abduholiq G’ijduvoniy, Imom Al-Bukhoriy and other representatives of the Uzbek nation made the greatest contribution not least to the world science and cultural development but also to strengthening of inter-civilizational dialogue and mutual understanding among peoples of the world.

Tashkent, Samarqand, Bukhoro, Khiva, Qo’qon ad other cities of Uzbekistan have been considered enlightenment and educational centers in the region throughout centuries.

This is backed by the statement of encyclopedist Makhmud ibn Vali (17th century) who wrote that “Movarounnahr produces knowledge and wisdom”. A whole pleiad of famous scientists, poets, writers who contributed greatly to the development of culture grew up in the territory of Uzbekistan throughout ages.

Schools and madrasas in Bukhoro, Khiva and Qo’qon favored that along with local traditions - thirst for knowledge and rich cultural heritage. This is confirmed by numerous pieces of evidence by other authors of the 16th – tearly 19th centuries. Samarqand was one of biggest scientific centers. The literary Khasankhoja Nisoriy (16th century) wrote that many academic and educated people lived in that city. Samarqand is still a center of science. Mavlonas from that land deal mostly with natural sciences.”

Tolerant attitude to other peoples in Uzbekistan today is obvious for all who know about this country as well as for numerous tourists traveling along the Great Silk Road.

Tolerance as the source of spiritual renaissance

At present the revival of spiritual values and tolerance are upholded at the level of state policy. The fact that representatives of different nationalities live in peace and harmony on the Uzbek soil as do so different world confessions, is the principal merit of the national policy that has been implemented by the young sovereign state from the very first days of its independence.

Considering Uzbekistan their motherland, representatives of different nationalities living in the country make their substantial contribution to the strengthening of its independence, building a democratic and constitutional state. Guarantees of extensive and free participation of representatives of all nations in the state, economic and cultural life of the country are ensured by the Constitution of Uzbekistan that underlines that people of Uzbekistan include all its citizens regardless of their nationality. The Law “On the freedom of conscience and religious organizations” and Constitution of Uzbekistan ensure the right of every person to profess any religion or not to profess any either. Representatives of different nationalities are granted broad opportunities for learning their native language, developing national culture and art. Schools and universities provide teaching in seven languages. Big diasporas print newspapers and journals, broadcast TV and radio programs in their language.

The republic has provided all conditions for legal equality, economic and public freedom for all citizens regardless of their nationality and religion. According to statistics, over 2,250 religious organizations from more than 15 different confessions have been officially registered in Uzbekistan by the present time. Two thousand mosques function as opposed to only 89 of them in 1980. Hundreds of churches, synagogues and houses of worship have been built over the years of independence. 164 Christian organizations, 8 Jewish communities, 6 Bahai communities, Krishna worshippers’ community and a Buddhist temple operate in the country. Believers celebrate all their religious holidays freely. Thus, Qurbon-hayit and Ramazan-hayit by Muslims, Easter and Christmas by Christians, Pesach, Purim and Hanukkah by Jews are widely celebrated every year. Our state head’s decrees announced Qurbon-hayit and Ramazan-hayit as days off. Besides, religious people go for pilgrimage to places of worship every year with the comprehensive support of the state.

The government of Uzbekistan makes every effort for preservation and development of national traditions, revival of native languages and cultures of peoples and nationalities living in the republic. Arrangement of conditions for religious freedom has become one of the priorities in the young independent state. Followers of confessions represented here live in peace and concord. Muslims, Christians and believers of other traditional religions not only developed the culture and traditions of tolerance but also learned mutual understanding and cooperation for many years of cohabitation in Uzbekistan.

Interaction of Cultures

The Republican International Cultural Center (RICC) and about 150 national cultural centers make their worthy contribution to strengthening interethnic relationships, development of culture and spirituality, revival of national customs and traditions. National cultural centers find their predestination in bringing the whole diversity of spiritual life of multinational population of Uzbekistan to people and with that promote convergence of ethnic groups and mutual understanding. Their active participation in the public life of the country, arrangement of scaled national holidays create unique atmosphere of heartfelt generosity and warmth, bring a sense of a family.

RICC that was established in January, 1992 at the initiative of the President right after gaining independence has carried out a huge deal of work. The government implements a well considered and, most importantly, tolerance policy in the sphere of interethnic and inter-confessional relationships. Over the years of independence many national cultural centers turned into authoritative public organizations able to address complicated cultural, enlightenment, spiritual and social challenges. They play the leading role in preservation of the language, customs and traditions of each ethnic group in Uzbekistan that favors strengthening the stability and civil harmony in the society. Both they and RICC achieved the main goal: different nationalities living here do not feel national minorities themselves. They keep in permanent contact with their historical motherland, learn native language, national art, traditions and take an active part in sociopolitical and cultural life of the country which has become their real and the only homeland.

National centers closely cooperate with each other, they mark state and national holidays and events. Such large-scale festivals as Uzbekistan is our Common Home, Motherland is the Only One, Our Power is in Unity and Solidarity in the best theater halls, parks and stadiums, became bright holidays of friendship and accord of multinational people of Uzbekistan. They are held in all cities and settlements of the republic and promote strengthening of international harmony, peace and stability in the country, preservation and development of customs and traditions of different nationalities that had been formed for centuries as well as promote patriotism and responsibility for the homeland’s destiny.

At present, RICC coordinates activity and renders organizational and methodological assistance to all national cultural centers (NCC). Fourteen of them have a status of republican ones with branches in many regions. However, the most important aspect is that they grew up in quality, became reasonably authoritative public organizations.

Improvement of directions and forms of RICC and NCCs’ activity has been carried out all these years. They attracted initiative and enthusiastic citizens who were ready to work voluntarily and revive the national culture. Their work supported and highly appreciated by the state has brought its fruitful outcome. The Republican International Cultural Center and national cultural centers organize numerous events: national holidays, festivals, music and poetic evenings, meetings with eminent figures of culture from different diasporas. Conduction of joint conferences dedicated to the development of interethnic relationships in Uzbekistan that find a broad public response is an important part of the activity. Centers take an active part in events timed to state holidays – Independence Day, Constitution Day, Navruz and others.

The fact that many of their activists underscores state awards proves the big role of national cultural centers in keeping peace and civil concordance in the country.

There is no exaggeration to say that national cultural centers in our country play the key role in preservation of ethnic peculiarity, language, customs and traditions of each nation promoting the formation of the foundation to build peace and tranquility for people and their confidence in tomorrow.

Interethnic and interconfessional harmony: experience of Uzbekistan

Nasriddin Mukhammadiev,

Director of the Republican International Cultural Center:

Every year we celebrate the World Tolerance Day with various cultural events. Currently our cultural centers are getting prepared for the important event – friendship festival called Uzbekistan is our Common Home to be held in the end of November in Tashkent. Representatives of all national cultural centers from regions will take part there. Exhibition, various interesting events and final gala concert of regional festivals’ winners will take place. Cultural centers time very many actions to this date. They include scientific and practical conferences, concerts, exhibitions and so on. Traditionally, representatives of all national cultural centers participate in actions of one of them. Polish song festival was strikingly celebrated as well as traditional autumn yield holiday Erntedankfest took place in Wiedergeburt - the German cultural center of Uzbekistan. We have many more interesting events ahead.

The round table addressing the issue of national minorities in different states took place in Berlin recently under the OSCE auspices. It should be noted that Knut Wollebeck, OSCE High Commissioner on national minorities’ affairs visited us more than once and had the first-hand knowledge about our activity. In this sense experience of Uzbekistan having seven-language education, ten-language press, TV and radio programs almost in ten languages has become a model of tolerance and interethnic concordance for many states.

Peace and harmony as guarantee of stability

Munojot Nurmatova,

Candidate (PhD) in philosophical sciences:

A multilingual speech has always sounded on our land, temples of all world confessions functioned, customs and traditions of many peoples existed and developed abreast. There are numerous historical evidences of that. The number of cultural centers in the republic has increased by 150 by the present time. Each of them carries out its purposeful activity, conducts events focusing on upbringing of the growing generation in the spirit of tolerance, neighborliness and friendship. All of us grew up by the example of our fathers reading Uzbek literature masterpieces where tolerance was an essence as well. Characters of almost ten nationalities are represented in Alisher Navoi’s works alone.

Therefore we see cultivation of these feelings in youth as the main task of our International Cultural Center and each cultural center separately. With this purpose the majority of events are arranged in educational institutions. Various circles function here for young people where they learn not only their native language but also languages of other peoples living in Uzbekistan. This is very important since peace and concordance is a guarantee of stability in the multiethnic state.

Revival of national values means preservation of development of culture’s tolerance

Aziz Tatibaev,

Associate professor, National University of Uzbekistan:

The present stage we are currently experiencing coincides with the national revival period. This is conditioned by the fact that huge layers of our national cultural heritage were not fully embodied in our every day life for a long time. The revival of these processes is the main guarantor of preservation of our culture’s tolerant development. This is because of the inevitable the address to origins, the existing culture of tolerance and interaction between quite different cultural traditions. This process stimulates the development of the modern Uzbek culture, I see how polyphonic and interesting it is. Let’s take painting as an example. Art is the most important indicator of the culture’s state at a certain moment.

Our artists, especially the young ones, are so unique, they harmoniously combine both traditional and modern painting in their creativity. In terms of architecture, Tashkent surprisingly embodies dynamism of the modern megalopolis and at the same time this is a city with a clear cultural identity. One can observe an interesting synthesis everywhere that emerges in the process of national revival. I think this is the right way of skilful and organic combination of national renaissance on the basis of tolerant perception of different cultural traditions. It is able to give a powerful impulse, a new breath to our development so that we could carry on what we call modernization in our historical and cultural terms, adopt gifts by modern world and civilization.

German music is played now on Navruz and Mustaqillik days

Maria Rekk,

Chairwoman of the German Cultural Center of Uzbekistan:

Wiedergeburt means renaissance. It is no coincidence that this title emerged: we received the real opportunity for reviving lost customs, traditions and language of the German people. Nowadays the center unites activity of German centers in Tashkent, Farg’ona, Samarqand, Bukhoro and other cities.

Organization of German language courses, various cultural and enlightening programs, and revival of national holidays with their joy, songs and stirring dances is main direction of activity of the center’s activists. Not only do Germans themselves, but also other citizens of multinational Uzbekistan take interest in these holidays.

There is the mutual enrichment process here: German music plays, national songs and dances are traditionally performed during Navruz and Mustaqillik holidays.

The work with children and youth is one of the most important areas of the center’s activity. We established the German youth’s organization Jugendstern dealing with arrangement of leisure, social, cultural and educational events including training modern technologies and economic programs.

The center is proud of its youth’s theater studio that staged a number of performances to works by world classics and modern German authors as well as Inspiration youth’s theater.

Since 2000, the center has been holding annual Days of German Culture in Uzbekistan with the participation of all its regional branches.

Those who visited Uzbekistan once will surely come back

Renat Shagabdinov,

senior research fellow, Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, member of the board of the Tashkent Tatar Public Enlightenment Cultural Center:

The great migrations of peoples happened wave by wave in Uzbekistan from ancient times. There were migration flows sometimes and everybody found a special aura here. Those who visited the Uzbek land surely wanted to come back. What did these people were attracted here by that they decided to put down their roots here having come from far away? I think it is people of this land, its main capital, who found support and mutual understanding here being of different culture and religion.

Any person can find himself, fulfill his potential, and get professional and scientific education in this godsend land that provides all opportunities. I like when a republic has the whole range of nationalities, cultures, numerous confessions. All this favors the mutual enrichment of cultures of peoples living here.

Uzbekistan is my second home

Adalat Mussu ogly Mamedov,

Special correspondent for Central Asia of the Public TV and Radio Company of the Republic of Azerbaijan:

I consider Uzbekistan my second Motherland. Many things tie me with it. I got my education here, I studied at the National University of Uzbekistan, then I worked firstly at Chkalov Aviation Association and later on at the National TV and Radio Company of Uzbekistan. I have been on friendly terms with numerous acquaintances in all regions of this country for over 20 years. I feel at home in this country because there is a surprising atmosphere of mutual understanding, respect and solidarity between peoples here. Every ethnic group continues developing its culture and traditions. Peace is most important. I dare say that I know Uzbekistan better than Azerbaijan because I have lived here for 25 years and can say what a wonderful land it is, what amazing, kind and hospitable people live here.

It is this feeling that encouraged me to devote my past several years to the creation of documentaries about Uzbekistan, its historical monuments and outstanding figures.

Culture of Uzbekistan is one of the brightest and original cultures of East. It is inimitable national music, dances and painting, unique national kitchen and clothes. The Uzbek national music is characterized as variety of subjects and genres. The songs and tool plays according to their functions and forms of usage can be divided into two groups: performed in the certain time and under the certain circumstances and performed at any time. The songs connected with customs and traditions, labor processes, various ceremonies, dramatized entertainment representations and games belong to the first group.

The Uzbek people is well-known for its songs. Koshuk - household song with a small diapason melody, covering one or two rows of the poetic text. The dancing character of a melody of this genre provides their performance in support of comic dances. "Lapar" is a dialogue-song. In some areas the term - lapar is applied to wedding songs "Ulan" (which is performed as a dialogue of man and women). Genre "yalla" includes two kinds of songs: a melody of a narrow range, and solo simultaneously with dance. National and professional poems of the poets of East are used as the texts for the songs. The special place in the Uzbek musical heritage occupy "dastans" (epic legends with lyric-heroic content). Also "Makoms"- are the basic classical fund of professional music of oral tradition.

The dances of uzbeks distinguish softness, smoothness and expressiveness of movements, easy sliding step, original movements on a place and on a circle.

The development of national painting began many centuries ago. At 16-17 centuries art of the manuscript and binding in Bukhara and some other urban centers has achieved significant success. The decorating of manuscript included refined calligraphy, performance by water paints and thin ornaments on fields. In Samarkand and especially in Bukhara the Central Asian school of a miniature has achieved a great success and were developed many different style directions. One of them, for example is connected with traditions of Behzod, which characterized with its gentle style of writing the letter and architectural elements.

National clothes

The Uzbek national clothes of the end of XX centuries remain constant up these days. The men in that time carried a direct cover shirts, bottom and top dressing gowns. The dressing gowns were very light and made from cotton wool. There were cuts on each side of dressing gown for convenience at walking. The trousers were made wide, of direct breed lent from top to bottom. Female clothes: dressing gowns, dress, "parandja"- also of wide breed.

Handicrafts

Culture, handicrafts and tourism are rapidly becoming inseparable partners. Local crafts are important elements of culture, and people travel to see and experience other cultures, traditions and ways of living. Crafts products form an important element of the purchases made by tourists, providing an important economic input to the local economy.

Applied art of Uzbeks has a wealth of variety when it comes to style, materials and ornamentation. Silk, ceramics and cotton weaving, stone and wood carving, metal engraving, leather stamping, calligraphy and miniature painting are some genres passed down from ancient times. Back in the past, each region had its own cultural and ethnic traditions the unique features of which were established by local guilds that have strengthened these characteristics through their art.

Uzbek craftsmen nowadays still practice ancient jewellery making techniques for cutting gemstones, grain filigree, granular work, engraving and enamelling, also they are trying to take into account fashion demands and styles.

Embroidery is one of the most popular trends of applied arts in Uzbekistan. Every city of Uzbekistan has its own unique features such as ornamentation, composition, colour range and stitching. The finest kind of embroidery, gold embroidery is still practised in Bukhara.

The art of carpet weaving is also a very ancient form of art throughout Asia and the East, and nowadays it can be found in some of the cities of Uzbekistan today. The art of wood carving is used and adapted in modern interior design. Carved and painted tables, stools, caskets, pencil boxes and bookstands are popular pieces of furniture among local people and tourists. The art of Miniature painting and calligraphy has been revived again in its traditional form as well as some modern variants. For example miniatures stamped on leather, painted on paper miniatures, small lacquered boxes, framed pictures, pencil boxes and many other ideas skilfully painted by masters can be found in Uzbekistan.

Literature

The most ancient samples of the Uzbek literature concern to 3etic creativity, integral part of culture of the Uzbek people. The rge place belongs to fairy tales such as about the animals, magical-ntastic themes and household stories. Among the latter a latifa jokes') genre is developed. The national imagination created a Elective image of Nasriddin Afandi, the main hero and wise laracter of Uzbek national jokes.

The largest genre of the Uzbek folklore is dastan ('poem'). It was (ecuted usually in support of musical tools. There are more than 300 dastans(100 plots) were written down.

The brightest samples are: the heroic epic of Alpomysh, heroic-xnantic epic of "Gur-ughli"(more than 40 plots), military epic Yusuf and Akhmad, Tokhir and Zukhra, and others. The book version, as a rule, was borrowed from classical products Farkhod and Shirin, Layli and Majnun.

Pre-Islamic culture is represented by insignificant number of ritten monuments in Old Turkic languages: Penitential prayer of Manicheans" (the 5th century) and Orkhun-Yenisey writings (7-12th centuries). "Kutadghu-Bilig" ('knowledge', 'giving happiness') (1069) of Yusuf Bolosoghuny, "Khibatul Khakaik" ('a souvenir of truths') by Akhmad Yugnaky, and especially, Devoni Lughatit Turk" ('dictionary of the Turkic languages) (1072-74) by Makhmud Kashghary are among the finest examples of Uzbek literature. Since the 14th century the Uzbek literature developed intensively and rather diverse. The period saw the emergence of a secular theme (a love epic with Biblical-Quranic topic, Yusuf and Zulaykho" by Durbek in 14-I5th centuries.).

Also, the most blooming period of Uzbek literature came on the scene during the period of Amir Temur. Diverse forms of brilliant poetic works achieved the special popularity. Compositions by Akhmad Yassavy, Akhmad Yugnaky and Khorazmy were widely popular among the public. Amir Temur himself highly respected Yassavy for his geniality, and built a majestic monument on his grave.

Special attention on the part of Amir Temur towards literature and arts has become a fair tradition to the entire Temur dynasty. Uzbek literature of that period served a significant stage in its historical development. Humanitarian values and great ideas are still urgent in it, and still preserved their value.

One of the bright lyric poets of the 15th centuiy was Lutfy, who in his poems used to highlight an ideal love. Poems by Atai and Sakkaky are also among brilliant examples. And, certainly, the special place belongs to works by Alisher Navoi. He combined his lyrics in four collections, including kasidas, gazels, kitas, rubais and others.

The cornerstone of his poetry is "Khamsa" ("Five stories"). In the anthology "The Assembly of Scientists" Navoi briefly describes famous poets of the 15th century. Also, in his many works he talked about theories of ethics and aesthetics. His treatise, namely "Weight of the sizes" served a significant development in Uzbek lyrics.

In the 16th century numerous literary and historical works as well as their translations into Uzbek language were produced. Historical events of the 16th century were told in Shayboniynoma (1506), as well as in the works by Zakhiriddin Muhammad Bobur, who is said to have led records throughout his life, which later had become a source for his autobiographical work, entitled Boburnoma, a remarkable literary and historical essay.

Later on, works by Turdi (Faroghy), Mashrab and other poets saw large popularity. The influence of folklore upon the written literature was on the rise. Many topics for legends served a basis for creation of large literary works (poems Yusuf and Zulaykho" by Nozim Khisrav, "Tokhir and Zukhra" by Sayyodi, "Bakbrom and Gulandom" by Saykali, and others).

In the 18-19 centuries the Ferghana Valley, Khorezm and Bukhara became the largest literary centers of the region. Poems by Nishaty Khorazmy came on the scene, influenced enormously by works of Navoi and Fuzily. Nodira and Uvaisy wrote about traditional theme of love. In early 19th century satirical pamphlets by Gulkhany, Makhmur and Agakhy were popular. Works by Munis, his historical "Heavenly garden of joy", finished later on by Agakhy, the author of the vast "Talisman of those in love", became a masterpiece of the Uzbek classic literature.

There were progressive poets of the period such as Mukumy, Furkat, Avaz Otar, Zavky, Khamza Khakimzoda Niyozy, Sadriddin Ainy, and Anbar Otin. In 1915 Khamza set up a theatrical group and wrote plays on local themes.

In early 20th century new poets and writers emerged in Uzbek literature, such as A. Kodiry, A. Chulpon, A. Fitrat, Oybek, G. Gulom, A. Kakhkhor, Kh. Olimjon, Uyghun, and K. Yashin. New genres like political satire, feuilleton, and pamphlet came on the scene. In 1923 satirical magazine Mushtum began to be published.

In 20 and 30s of the last century, the poetry prevailed in Uzbek literature. In 50-60s various stories and novels by authors such as I. Rakhim, Oybek, Shukhrat, S. Akhmad came on the scene. Oybek, Abdulla Kakhkhor, and Ibrakhim Rakhim wrote about the countryside life. Also, the historical theme saw its rise. However, spiritual shape of the contemporary person remained as the main topic in literature. Among such works there are novels by P. Kodirov, A. Yokubov, and Murmukhsin.

In early 60s, stories and memoirs were further developed. One could observe a delicate mastery in the diversity of genres in the poetry by Shukrullo, E.Vokhidov, T. Tula, A. Oripov, Zulfiya, and others.

Historic and biographic themes in the works by Uighun, Izzat Sulton, and others occupy a significant place in the playwriting, as well,

The Uzbek literature during the period of independence is a not just another historical stage in the development of the national literature, but it is a display of the new art - aesthetic phenomenon, with its new creative features.

It became independent of ruling communist regime and ceased to be a state literature. Respectively, the state stopped rewarding for "services" and punishing for disobedience. Now the modern Uzbek literature cares of spiritual enrichment of each individual, and perfection of social structures and industrial attitudes are no longer main topics for it anymore. It wishes to understand the person deeper - in all of its variety of interpersonal relations. A person has become its main subject, but not a typical hero given some typical circumstances.

The modern Uzbek literature delivers itself of primitivism, becomes diverse, more courageous in the choice of a form and style. However with freedom of creativity and plurality of opinions, there is a danger of dull works to come on the scene.

The Uzbek poetry, continuing a centuries-long tradition, remains as the leading genre of the national literature.

The attitude and poetic realization of the world saw a new stage in the poems by Omon Matchon, Barat Boykobulov, Sirojiddin Sayyid, Normurod Narzullaev, Shavkat Rakhmon, Chulpon Ergash, Azim Suyun, Usmon Azim, Ikrom Otamurod, Abduvali Kutbiddin, Aziz Said, Bakhrom Ruzimuhammad, Muhammad Yusuf, Iqbol Mirzo, and others. Contemporary poetry pays a great deal of attention towards not only circumstances and enthusiasm, but also reflection of complex spiritual state and strive for realization of the sacred feelings of an individual, study of his rich and diverse soul.

Ancestors (Turkiylar), Acknowledgment (Iqror) by Sh. Rakhmon, Confession (Istigbfor), The white and black (Oq va qora) by Azim Suyun, Non-explanatory dictionary (Izohsiz lughat) by Abduvali Kutbidin, Dream (Tusb), Way (Yo'l) by A. Said are typical examples of the modern poetry. For this period variety of the forms and styles, and wish to combine leading traditions of poetry of the East and West are common.

One of the main features is a return of poetry to its initial roots: communicating sincere feelings and modern secrets of soul. It became the elite genre oriented to people with a refined spirit and advanced imagination. Even though, sometimes it leads to decrease in number of readers, however it advances the aesthetic level of poetiy lovers, as well as degree of understanding the art.

Modern readers of Uzbek poetiy are able to comprehend a delicate, abstract, and sophist poetiy. Now, the Uzbek reader has developed the aesthetic taste for the true poetry and ability to understand it.

While the young generation with new names prevails in contemporary poetry, then in the prose one could observe a continuation of traditions. Today writers of different generations, such as Odil Yokubov, Said Akhmad, Shukur Kholmirzaev, Utkir Khoshimov, Oman Mukhtor, Tokhir Malik, Murod Muhammad Dost, Toghai Murod, Erkin Azamov, Khairiddin Sultonov, Khurshid Dustmuhammad, and others successfully work in the given genre.

Creative and unexpected decisions in the sphere, obvious violations of certain rules are those main features of Uzbek modern prose of this period. In the novel by Omon Mukhtor "The many faced" (Ming bir qiyofa) and surprisingly unordinary story by Nazar Eshankul "The Black book (Qora Kitob) some of the features of the world prose were skillfully used. Original stories Not to catch a wind (Shamolni tutib bo'lmaydi), A grave city (Tobut shahan), Cyclone (Quyin), and others are new aesthetic phenomenon in the national literature.

The prose writer Sh. Kholmirzaev skillfully employed a traditional style of the story-telling by creating a live image of the contemporary person in his novels, such as "Scarecrow" ("Olabuji"), "Dinosaur" ("Dinozavr"), and stories "Moon under a cloud (Bulut to 'sgan oy), Freedom (Ozodlik), and Navruz" ("Navruz"). N. Norkobilov followed the same route in his works: "White collar" ("Oqbuyun"), Rocks cry too (Qoyalar ham yighlaydi), "A highlander" ("Togh odami"), Honor (Oriyat), A joyful day (Quvonchlikun).

The traditional style and innovation of the world literature is successfully combined in stories: "Old Soviet people" ("Shurodan qolgan odamlar"), "A plane tree" ("Chinor") by Sh.Bugayev, Armchair (Oromkursi), Ibn Mughanni ("Ibn Mughanni") by Kh. Dustmuhammad, and the novel, Field of my father (Otamdan qolgan dalalan) by Toghay Murod.

The modern prose pays special attention to the spiritual world of the person and reflection of individual qualities in various aspects.

New literary heroes now a part of the national literature: Bayna Momo (Not to catch a wind), Ulton (Scarecrow), Gulsara, Tavakkal (Moon under a cloud), Khusan palvan, Zukhra (Honon), Emazarpalvan, UsarKuklam (Rocks cry too). The urgent problems were touched upon in modern plays such as: Iron lady (Temir khotin) by Sh. Boshbekov, "Gloomy nights (Kunduzsiz kechalan), Next door away (Bir qadamyo'l) by U. Azim, Reprisal (Qataghon) by U. Khoshimov, Ruler ("Sokbibqiron") by A. Oripov, "Victorious ruler" (Fotikhli Muzaffar), "Secrets of the castle" (Bir koshona sirlari) by A. Yokubov, Old matchmakers (Sovchi chollan) by Kh. Sharipov, "The first wedding cover" ("Chimildik") by E. Khushvaqtov, and others.

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