The Oliy Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the highest state representative body with a legislative power. It consists of two chambers – the Legislative Chamber (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). The term of powers of both chambers is five years. The Legislative Chamber consists of 120 deputies, elected from various electoral districts based on multiparty system. The Senate is a territorial representative chamber, which consists of 100 Senators.
Six deputies each from the Republic of Karakalpakstan, provinces and city of Tashkent are elected via secret ballot as the Senate members at the joint sessions of local councils Jukorgy Kenges of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, provinces, districts, and towns, totally making up 84 members of Upper House. The rest of the 16 members are appointed by Uzbek President among those who are said to have gained much experience and served exceptionally well in spheres such as science, arts, literature, economy, and other spheres of state and public affairs, as well as other widely respected and honored people of the country.
Joint powers of the Legislative Chamber and Senate of Oliy Majlis include:
- to adopt the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
- to introduce amendments and addenda into Constitution; to pass and introduce amendments and addenda to Constitutional and other laws;
- to pass resolution on holding a referendum and setting its date;
- set main directions of both domestic and foreign policies and pass the state strategic programs;
- to define the structure and powers of legislative, executive, and judicial branches of power;
- to approve resolutions on adding new state structures into the Republic of Uzbekistan and cancel them;
- to pass the State budget and monitor its execution;
- to institute state awards and ranks;
- to form the Central Election Committee;
- to review and approve the candidacy of the Prime Minister proposed by President; to ratify and denounce international treaties.
As a rule, issues within the framework of the joint powers of chambers, are considered first in the Legislative Chamber, and then – in the Senate.
Those who may initiate laws in the Legislative Chamber of Oliy Majlis are: President, in the Republic of Karakalpakstan – on behalf of its highest body of state power, the deputies of Legislative Chamber of Oliy Majlis, the Cabinet of Ministries of Uzbekistan, the Constitutional, Supreme, and Supreme Economic Courts, as well as Prosecutor General of Uzbekistan.
Law takes effect once it is passed by Legislative Chamber and approved by Senate, signed by President, and further officially published on the press.
Out of its deputies, the Legislative Chamber of Oliy Majlis elects the Speaker and his/her deputies. And Senators elect the Chairman and deputies of the Senate. The former is elected upon the proposal of his/ her candidacy by President. The representative of Karakalpakstan serves as one of the deputies of the Chairman of Senate.