Saturation of the domestic food market, achievement of production self-sufficiency in domestic market and food security are priority directions of development of agricultural sector, which is an important sector of Uzbekistan’s economy. Effective implementation of these tasks will allow solving such pressing social issues as employment of population, their well-being, urban and rural development.
Over the years of independence Uzbekistan’s agricultural policy went through significant changes. State’s and collective sectors’ agricultural enterprises were abolished. Instead of them they have established farmer enterprises who have implemented advanced technology management. This allowed it to diversify the agricultural sector, to develop animal husbandry, poultry farming, fish farming, horticulture, gardening and beekeeping.
Currently, more than 67,800 farms operate in the country. Their activities are regulated by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On farmer enterprise” and President’s Resolution “On measures for further improvement of the organization and the development of farming in Uzbekistan”.
Last year, our country has developed more than 17,500 farms and more than 250 thousand new jobs. The largest number of farms established in Tashkent, Jizzakh, Namangan, Samarkand, Kashkadarya, Ferghana, Andijan regions and the Republic of Karakalpakstan.
The introduction of system of preferential crediting of agricultural projects and expanding service networks in rural areas became real support for farmers through the supply of fuel and lubricants, biological and chemical fertilizers, plant protection products, seeds and others.
Since late 90s the country achieved stable growth of agricultural sector, constituting an annual 6-7 percent Over 24 years, the volume of agricultural products increased more than twice. This, in turn, allowed saturating the market and increasing the consumption of basic foodstuffs several times. For example, last year, it is grown 12.592 million tons of vegetables, including potatoes, 1.85 million tons of melons, 1.556 million tons of grapes, 2.731 million tons of fruits.
The average yield of wheat in the country reached 55 quintals per hectare, and in some areas it totaled 60-77 quintals per hectare, which is a great success of our farmers. Their invaluable contribution to replenishment of treasury of our country have made and cotton growers of the country, brought together more than 3 million 350 thousand tons of raw sugar. In 2015, total volume of agricultural production increased by almost 7 percent.
High yields were provided mainly due to intensification of agricultural production, improvement of selection and implementation of recognized varieties of cotton and cereal crops, development of modern agricultural technologies.
Along with this, high quality structural changes in agriculture in the next four years. In particular, planned gradual reduction of the volume of production and procurement of raw cotton from 3 million 350 thousand tons to 3 million tons. This will free up about 170,500 hectares of irrigated land where cotton yield does not exceed 12-15 quintals per hectare, while yields in the country an average of 26.1 quintals per hectare. As a result, fruit and vegetables will be sown and planted on unleashed cotton fields.
As noted at the final meeting of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, up to 2020 it is provided to bring the production volumes of cereal crops up to 8.5 million tons with an increase of 16.4 percent, to increase potato production by 35 percent, other vegetables – by 30 percent, fruits and grapes – by 21.5 percent, meat – by 26.2 percent, milk – by 47.3 percent, eggs – by 74.5 percent, fish – 2.5 times. At the same time significantly increase the volume of exports of these types of food.
Increase in productivity of agricultural crops puts in the forefront further industrialization of agriculture and processing of this raw material base, establishment of appropriate infrastructure to ensure preservation of quality of harvest. Thanks to the selfless work of all rural workers in 2015 built and refurbished 230 enterprises in industrial processing of agricultural products, commissioned 114 new cold stores with a capacity 77,800 tons. Thus, the total capacity of storage of fruits and vegetables increased to 832 thousand tons. This helps to ensure the population on a regular basis in agricultural products, increasing their exports and maintain price stability.
However, special attention is paid to the welfare of rural workers, creation of favorable living conditions that meet the modern requirements, improvement of quality of housing and communal services.
As a result of implementation of State Program for construction of rural individual housing on standard projects for 2009 – 2013, in 159 rural areas 1248 new complex residential areas have been created, where more than 33.5 thousand modern and comfortable individual houses have been built on an area of more than 4.6 million square meters. 1677 kilometers of water supply networks, 1,039 kilometers of electric grids, 1346 kilometers of gas supply networks and 981 kilometers of roads have been put into operation, as well as more than a thousand objects of social and market infrastructure.
In the current year, 13 thousand individual houses in 305 residential communities will be built in the republic. In the process of construction of new residential communities 300.5 kilometers of water networks, 296.3 kilometers of electric networks, 307.5 kilometers of gas networks, 264.8 kilometers of access roads will be constructed. Here will be built 175 objects of social and market infrastructure, including 35 guzars, 25 shopping malls, 34 markets, 36 bakeries, 39 complexes of consumer services and 6 mini-banks.
Implementation of these and other projects in rural area, of course, will enhance the welfare of population, and as a result will lead to further development of agriculture and growth of productivity in this area.