“Such a person can come to the world once in a millennium”
Emir Mecca ibn Wahhas on Mahmoud Zamahshari
“Jar Allah” (protected by Allah), “Ustaz al-dunya” (teacher of the whole world), “Ustaz al-Arab wa al-ajam” (teacher of Arabs and non-Arabs), “Kaabat al-Udaba” (Kaaba literatury) Fakhr Khavarazm “(pride of Khorezm),” imam “- it was with these epithets that they addressed to the outstanding scholar of the East Mahmud al-Zamakhshari (1075-1144) with great respect and reverence.
The great ancestor of the Uzbek people became famous in the Muslim world in theology, philosophy, philology, interpretation of the Holy Qur’an. The full name of the thinker is Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Umar ibn Muhammad al-Khwarizmi al-Zamahshari. As it is clear from his name, the scientist was born in the village of Zamakhshar of the Khorezm oasis. It is pertinent to note that this region has presented to the world such famous personalities as Muhammad Musa al-Khorezmi, Abu Abdullah al-Khwarizmi, Abu Raikhan Beruni and others.
Father al-Zamahshari was a righteous and educated man, enjoyed great authority among people, served as an imam. Mahmud’s mother was also a pious, enlightened and wise woman. Thanks to this, the boy received primary education from his parents. Subsequently, in search of knowledge, al-Zamahshari visits Khorasan, Syria, Iraq, Hijaz, where he meets with prominent scientists of that time, takes part in scientific events.
In his education al-Zamakhshari paid special attention to the study of the Arabic language and literature, various dialects of the Arab peoples, their customs and traditions. Perfectly mastering the language of the Holy Quran, he wrote all his works, including grammar and linguistics, in this language. The importance of these works for the Arabs is evidenced also by their recognition in the time of genius: “If it were not for al-Zamakhshari, the Arabs would not know the full depth of their (native) language.”
In a word, it can be stated without exaggeration that our great ancestor is one of the founders of Arabic linguistics, a new method of grammar, the compilation of dictionaries according to the alphabetical principle of root words, the first author of a multilingual dictionary (Arab-Persian, Arab-Persian-Turkic). Moreover, thanks to the works and activities of al-Zamahshari, Maverannahr became one of the influential centers of the Arabic language and Arabic-speaking culture.
Outstanding Arabist twice visited Mecca. The emir of the city of Abu al-Hussein ibn Vahhas al-Husayni met Zamakhshari with all the honors. At his behest for the scientist a house was built near the Kaaba and all conditions for scientific, creative and teaching activities were created.
An outstanding thinker is the author of more than 60 works on linguistics, lexicology, literary criticism, Muslim exegesis (science of interpretation of sacred texts), sunnah, fiqhu and philosophy. Among the surviving about 40 works of Zamakhshari, literary and grammar-lexicographic literatures predominate. His commentary on the Qur’an, al-Qashshafan hakaik al-tanzil (Disclosing the truth of revelation), recognized as one of the canonical interpretations of the sacred book and used in the teaching process at al-Azhar University, is considered, in fact, the first example of scientific study of the text of the scripture.
In addition to the works in these areas, the pen of the scientist also belongs to works in other spheres of science and natural science. For example, the work devoted to the geography of the Arabian Peninsula, entitled Kitab al-jibal wa al-amkina wa al-miyah (The Book of Mountains, Places and Waters) was translated into Latin in Holland and repeatedly reprinted in Europe. Of particular importance is the Al-faik fi gharib al-hadith (An Excellent Book on Amazing Hadiths), dedicated to the Prophet’s legends, which was repeatedly reprinted in Hyderabad, Baghdad, Cairo.
Great Uzbek poet, revered throughout the world
Since the first days of independence, Uzbekistan has been carrying out large-scale work on the revival and multiplication of national values, perpetuating the memory of our great ancestors, who made an invaluable contribution to the development of the world civilization, and studied and popularized their rich heritage. A prominent place in their row is occupied by the outstanding Uzbek poet, thinker, statesman Nizamiddin Mir Alisher Navoi.
Such high qualities as justice, mutual consent and generosity, charity, respect for parents, sympathy and the desire to provide assistance to the needy, friendship between nations, the promotion of the prosperity of the Motherland, the upbringing of the young generation by harmoniously developed personalities are found in the contemporary stage of our country’s development , in particular in the process of ongoing socio-economic, spiritual and educational reforms.
His works are widely studied in general schools, colleges and lyceums, higher educational institutions, serve as an inexhaustible source of inspiration for composers, musicians and artists. The attention of our people is represented by new songs on the poet’s ghazals, literary and artistic works dedicated to his work. This plays an important role in the upbringing of the younger generation in the spirit of patriotism, selflessness, a sense of belonging to the fate of the Motherland.
Alisher Navoi’s surviving literary heritage is great and multifaceted – about 30 collections of poems, poems, scientific works and poetic treatises that fully reveal the spiritual life in Central Asia at the end of the 15th century. In the years of independence, a complete collection of his works in 20 volumes has been published in our country.
The top of Navoi’s art is considered to be the famous “Hamsu” (“Pyateritsu”) – a collection of five poems “Confusion of the Righteous”, “Leili and Majnun”, “Farhad and Shirin”, “Seven Planets”, “Iskandar wall” based on the folk epic – popular in those days form of presentation of philosophical and artistic outlook. This monumental epic cycle is considered an invaluable example of Uzbek classical literature, which has become a great monument of world literature.
Another undoubted contribution of Alisher Navoi was the introduction of the Taro-Uzbek language, along with Farsi, into the work of writers. Before him, no one wrote in this language, considering it too rude for versification. Thus, the poet’s work had an undeniable impact on the development of not only Uzbek, but also other Turkic-speaking literatures.
The name of the National Library of Uzbekistan, the State Academic Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theater, the Institute of Language and Literature attached to the Academy of Sciences, the Literature Museum, the leading industrial center – the city of Navoi, the station underground, streets and residential quarters.
For talented students of senior courses of humanitarian faculties with excellent academic performance and participating in creative work, a scholarship named after Alisher Navoi was established.
The merits of the genius Uzbek poet worthy of not only appreciated our people, but also the entire enlightened world. The works of Alisher Navoi are truly a precious pearl of the world’s treasury of knowledge. They still cause genuine interest throughout the world, as evidenced by translations of the poet’s works into English, French, German and many other languages.
In various countries, as a sign of respect for the poet’s memory, his monuments have been erected, once again emphasizing the world significance of the rich spiritual heritage of our great ancestor, the great creative potential of the Uzbek people. Currently, in recognition of an outstanding thinker, his name is worn by the streets in Almaty, Baku and Ashgabat, the avenue in Kiev. In his honor the crater on Mercury is named. The outstanding poet has monuments in Moscow, Tokyo, Baku, Osh, bas-relief in Mazar-e-Sharif.
In order to further study and microfilm the manuscript monuments of Uzbek literature, namely the identification of the works of Alisher Navoi, the State Museum of Literature and the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, scientific expeditions and trips to the most famous book depositories of the world are organized.
So, from the libraries of France and England photocopies of the rarest copies of the literary heritage of “Kulliyat” by Alisher Navoi, as well as artistically decorated manuscripts of his works were delivered. The miniatures published by scientists for the books of Navoi were awarded medals at international book fairs. Along with this, as a result of archaeographic expeditions to foreign countries from the National Library of France, the British Museum, the Indiana Office and the Library of the Bodleian Library, the Windsor Royal Library and the Library of the Oxford University, the book collections of Afghanistan, India, Iran, Turkey and the USA, copies manuscripts of works of Uzbek literature, including Alisher Navoi, which are now the property of the Uzbek people.
Thus, the world of images and feelings Alisher Navoi spiritualized the poetry of many peoples, primarily Uzbek literature, the first great representative of which he was. After several centuries his works remain attractive and relevant, as the ideological basis of his work is humanism, justice, thoughts and aspirations about the happy life of all people, faith in reason and progress.
Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur
S great poet and educator s, talented commander and state athletic figure Zakhiriddin Muhammad Babur has made a significant contribution to the development of world science and art.
Poetic collections “Kabul sofa” and “Indian sofa”, memoirs “Baburname” and his other works had a decisive influence on the formation of Uzbek literary and artistic thought. The scientific works of Babur make it possible to comprehensively understand the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of Central Asia, Afghanistan, and India at the end of the 15th – beginning of the 16th century.
Zahiriddin Babur was born in 1483 in Andijan, at the age of 12 he became the ruler of Fergana, in 1526 he founded a centralized state in India, which lasted more than three centuries. This empire Babur ruled only five years, but during this period he carried out numerous progressive reforms: landscaped the cities of Agra and Delhi, erected palaces on the banks of the river Jamna, reduced taxes, modernized the water supply system.
Among the scientific works of Babur, the “Treatise on Aruz” is of particular importance – a work devoted to the study of the philological foundations of poetry. The peak of his work is rightly considered “Baburname” – a work in which historical events, outstanding personalities, natural landscapes are depicted. In addition, it is a kind of encyclopaedia containing scientific information about many spheres of life of that era. Also in the text “Baburname” legends and other elements of oral folk art are used, descriptions of traditions and rituals are given.
The Uzbek people are proud of the masterpieces of the outstanding poet and brilliant scholar Babur, who is still the connecting link of the cultural relations of the peoples of Central Asia with Afghanistan and India. In these countries hundreds of scientific and literary works, feature films are dedicated to our brilliant compatriot.
Handwritten compositions of the poet are kept in museums of France, England, the USA and other countries. So, in Iran, a unique copy of the Wakoya-i-Boburi was discovered, which includes “Mubayin” – a treatise on Muslim jurisprudence. The manuscript, accompanied by commentaries and Persian translation, served as an object of further research as a model of calligraphy and book art. The foundations of the Salarjang Museum in Hyderabad, India, found earlier unknown lists of manuscripts Babur sofa.
As a result of joint scientific and practical research by Uzbek and foreign scholars, copies of the main manuscripts of the works of our outstanding ancestor were delivered to Uzbekistan, which resulted in the publication of the “Parisian Babur Divan List”, the album “Miniatures for” Baburname “, awarded at international book fairs, “Treatise on Aruz” and many others.
Independence gave us unlimited opportunities to explore the precious facets of Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur’s creativity deeper and more fully, making his heritage an asset to the world community.