April 24, 2014




Maximum Effect. 2


Settlement on the Bank of the River Sayhun (Syr Darya)3

The International Conference “The historical heritage of scientists and thinkers of the Medieval East, its role and significance for the modern civilization”. 4

Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Beruni4



































Press-service of MFA of the Republic of Uzbekistan



Maximum Effect

Singapore, a city-state, has for many years amazed experts, financial analysts and economists for not only its exceptional ability to adapt to any conditions, but also its willingness to make the most of even the smallest of these opportunities. A state whose territory makes up as few as 715 sq. km, is today one of leading nations in Asiaas much as the world in terms of competitiveness and economic efficiency. These achievements have been possible due to the hard work, since as recently as half a century ago the country had just made it on the rails of an industrial progress.

A great path undertaken by Singapore to develop its economic model is largely symmetrical to that made by Uzbekistan for more than twenty years. Modernization, innovation, IT, investments – these are the landmarks that guide both countries in an effort to take up a rightful place on the global economic map of the world. And Uzbekistan can learn much from the country that for years ranked first in the World Bank rating “Doing Business”.

Singapore is one of the so-called four Asian tigers or four Asian small dragons, that is, the countries that have achieved outstanding success in building innovative economies. The nation earnedanother informal title – that of an “Asian economic miracle of 20th century”, because just in a few decades the country evolved from an emerging economy into one of the most highly advanced ones. Interestingly, Singapore and Uzbekistan have just another trait in common, and that is interlacing of cultures and ethnicities, a unique fusion at the junction of Asia, the East and Europe. Countries have policies aimed at maintaining interfaith harmony, development of tolerance and accord among people of different ethnicities and religious groups.

Thus, what is Singapore like today and where are the points of contact allowing for the promotion of cooperation with our country? Its economic development strategy allowed for a short time to turn this “Asian Tiger” into a financial and commercial center of Southeast Asia. Singapore took a firm place among the industrialized nations, becoming one of the leaders in high-tech sectors such as electronic and electrical industry. It enjoys a leading position in Southeast Asia in the production of electronic components, precision instruments and computers. It is the development of this cooperation area that our two countries have been placing a special emphasis on. In the near future, Uzbekistan will enter a new line in the development of its high-tech industry; the country will launch theproduction of personal computers. A partner in this project is a Singaporean company Prescient Systems & Technologies Pte., Ltd. Following several meetings and negotiations, the Uzeltekhsanoat Joint-Stock Company and the Singaporean side have reached a preliminary agreement on a joint scheme. The feasibility study of the project is already prepared.. The production is planned to be placed in the Sirdaryo region of Uzbekistan. This is due to the favorable geographical and transit position of the region, the availability of a necessary transport and engineering infrastructure and human resources. There is already an active branch of the SIZ Jizzakh, where the Chinese ZTE launched the assembly of mobile phones. The parties now continue negotiations on the implementation of the necessary pre-work, as well as the signing of the relevant bilateral agreements. Total project cost is valued at US$8.4m. After reaching the projected capacities, the factory is to produce up to 100,000 computers a year.

In the high-tech segment operates an Uzbek-Singaporean Joint Venture CFM ProEnergies specializing in the production of LED lamps and lighting. The enterprise is located in FIEZ Navoi, manufacturing brand new artificial light sources, using LED as a light source. These lamps have the highest energy efficiency even with respect to fluorescent lamps, the production of which is being actively developed in Uzbekistan. Moreover, the new generation of high strength lamp to be more durable and environmentally friendly because it does not contain toxic substances and therefore do not require special disposal. In the FIEZ, production of 17 kinds of lighting fixtures and bulbs has already been introduced.

However, perhaps the largest and brightest example of the bilateral cooperation can be called the projects of Singapore’s Indorama Group in Uzbekistan. The company operates in two industries strategically important for our republic – hydrocarbon and textile sectors. In particular since 2011, a project is underway on the construction of gas chemical complex on Unitary Subsidiary Enterprise “Muborak Gas Processing Plant” valued at over US$1.6b. The facility is expected to be commissioned in 2016. After reaching the design capacity it will produce up to 492 thousand tons of polyethylene, 66 thousand tons of gas condensate and 53 tons pyrolysis gasoline.

A Project of the company in the textile industry has long proved correctness of the decision to invest in the economy of Uzbekistan. In 2010, the country had established a joint venture Indorama Kokand Textile, and a year later started one of the most modern factories for the production of cotton yarn cost US$55m. Its capacity is up to seven thousand tons per year. Over 85% of the yarn is exported to Germany, Spain, Belgium, France, Argentina, Brazil, Turkey, Bangladesh and other countries. Earlier this year, a new step was made in development of the company – a third stage of development of the plant has been started, in which an investor was expected to assign additional funds in the amount of US$20m in the expansion of spinning with the creation of 100 additional jobs. To note, the total investment of Indorama Group to Uzbekistan’s textile industry has exceeded US$90m. The company Verigrow successfully operates in this segment, too. In 2012, the Singaporean side bought a dormant industrial complex and organized a modern enterprise, Verigrow Ipagi, specializing in silk production. In restoration activities over US$5m have been invested, and more than half of this amount went to the purchase of new equipment and technology, modernization and technological re-equipment. Today, the company employs 180 people. Last year it produced goods worth more than one billion soums, 80% of which went for export. A new stage of capacity expansion continues, there is an installation of the equipment ongoing. After its run, the production will increase by 70%, being able to annually produce for UZS2 billion and creating 60 new jobs.

Another interesting area of cooperation is tourism. There is a growing flow of visitors from Singapore to our country, especially in cognitive and pilgrim tourism.

Overall, last year the volume of the bilateral trade between our nations totaled US$47.6m. Experts note that this is low enough not only for the available potential, but already achieved results of previous years. For example, in 2012 the trade turnover exceeded US$107m. Therefore, the parties plan to soon significantly enhance communication, especially between business representatives. Today 33 Uzbek-Singaporean joint ventures operate in Uzbekistan, including seven purely foreign enterprises. In the near future there may be an order of magnitude more. This was discussed at a joint business forum and cooperation exchange held in late March in Tashkent. Many Singaporean businessmen expressed their interest in creation of new capacities in special industrial zones Navoi, Angren and Jizzak. Especially so if one takes into account that there are already successful examples of an effective use of Singaporean investments. Both countries have demonstrated not only a desire to go a joint course, but also to jointly develop quite complex technology projects, to create a unique capacity for deep processing of raw materials. This commitment in the near future will allow Uzbekistan and Singapore to bring trade to a higher level.

(Source: “Uzbekistan Today” newspaper)



Settlement on the Bank of the River Sayhun (Syr Darya)

90 km. off Tashkent there are ruins of an ancient fortress on the right bank of Sir Darya. Premises made of square baked brick and adobe brick are seen on the cliff; arch of the water main, and numerous Barbados (dirt pits) drop Sir Darya. Shakhrukhiya, the land of tribes of different periods, is the town of Tamerlane’s fourth son.

In the Spring of 1898 the people of the town were put into a flutter about the fact that the mighty Sir Darya crushes its banks, washing ancient dwellings out. Trunk boxes with ancient manuscripts and huge vessels were sailing down the river. Green coins and bright glazed cup were found on the bunk.

Amateur archaeologists found the remains of the ancient settlement, known as Sharkiya near the place where the Akhangaran River joins the Sir Darya. Along the bank there were deep wells, thick roofs of ancient buildings and underground utility system. Outside, the necropoleis with epitaphs dated back 15th to 17th centuries. Both findings and the name of the location reminded a name of the biggest ancient settlement associated with Shakhrukh, the youngest of Tamerlane’s sons. Archaeologists soon realized that Sharkiya was Shakhrukhiya, one of the large fortresses of Tamerlanes’ state.

By the 15th century scripts, Amir Temur, during his numerous travels to the eastern locations, appreciated the strategic significance of the location and ordered to build a strong fortress there. The fortress should have control the land and water ways. The fortress named after Shakhrukh, who received a lordship over the eastern land of Transoxiana. Under the name the city was included in the original pansophy “Oriental Library” by Antoine Galland, French Orientalist of the 17th century. Its popularity in the 17th and 18th c.c. made it republished four times in French and Dutch Languages. It informs that Shakhrukhiya “was built by Tamerlane on the bank of Seyhun or Yaxart Rivers with the strong wide bridge, and its harbor receives a lot of ships loaded with different goods. It is expected that Shakhrukhiya is that same town, which was ruined by Ghenghis Khan and reconstructed, and enlarged by Tamerlane and Shakhrukh.” However, the exact location was not pointed in the ancient sources. Many orientalists believed that Khodjent and Shakhrukhiya are different names of one place thanks the tales of heroic struggle of citizens of Khodjent against Ghenghis Khan’s troops.

The fortress was built with consideration of the location and its mastership – it was protected by the canals transformed into ditches and the river also with its steep banks. Speed of building astonishes owing to a novelty method of erection of fortifications, applied by Tamerlane in Samarqand. His contemporary, while depicting the peculiarities of the building techniques, points out, “It is a marvel that his noble mind hit upon the ideas which did not come to master-builders.”

Fortification study has shown that the technique of in situ thick wall building to protect from an enemy with battering ram was generally used.

Armor plates of Tamerlane’s warrior, excavated from cultural layers of a dwelling that hanged over Sir Darya, raised an interest in archaeologists as a unique reflection of that period. Buried in the ground for over 500 years the plates were damaged sufficiently. According to many details one may say that the plates of that type belonged only to notable warriors.

For some time Shakhrulhiya was the second capital of the Tashkent Domain. It was the period that agriculture, pottery, smithcraft, and jewellery developed. Well known memoirist Zayniddin Vasifiy says in 1518 that he had written a credential to Hussein, a craftsman, for the appointment of ‘the senior tailor man of Shakhrukhiya Domain.’ The town was a key trade point owing to its location on a river traffic artery as well as the border of a nomadic prairie, which was a vast market for product sales. That was a reason why the town collapsed. At the end of the 15th century Abdullahakhan the Second during his military expedition to Tashkent destroyed Shakhrukhiya. Population of the town spread along neighboring lands, but the developing town ruined.

It is clear today that Shakhrukhiya lays on the more ancient settlement, which dates back to thousands of years ago. It is probably the only site, which is associated with so many legends and precepts such as Zaripchol Abyss, and hidden passages over the river to the left bank of Oxys toward desert Malichqul, secret treasures, civilians chase for a goat, which ran on the roofs dwellings from Sharkiya to Ablyg. Notwithstanding the legends, one may read the information on battles with hordes of conquerors, dence building of the town, scholars and heroes of Sharkiya. This is the only town in the Tashkent Region, which is associated with Tamerlane. Today its transformation into an open air museum is a key process.

(Source: “Uzbekistan Today” newspaper)


The International Conference “The historical heritage of scientists and thinkers of the Medieval East, its role and significance for the modern civilization”

Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Beruni

(973-1048, Kyat. Gazna)

Encyclopaedist, astronomer, mathematician, geographer, physicist, geologist, Pharmacologist, historian, linguist Founder of geodesy


Abu Rayhan Beruni was born on September 4, 973 in the suburbs of the town of Kyat, the ancient capital of Khorezm. He was brought up in the family of a famous scholar, prominent mathematician and astronomer Abu Nasr ibn Irak, which belonged to the dynasty of Khorezm-shah – Afrigides. Living at court Beruni could get good education which enabled him to start making research.

In about the year of 1004 Beruni had moved to the city of Gurganj (the new capital of Khorezm-shahs), where at court of the governor Abu-l-Abbas Ma’mun ibn Ma’mun (1009-1017) he occupied an honoured position and went on his scientific work at the Ma’mun Academy in Khorezm. In 1017 on the strong request from the sultan Mahmud Gaznavi, he and scholars moved to the city of Gazna, where Beruni stayed till the end of his life. He died in Gazna on December 11, 1048.

Main Scientific Works

Abu Rayhan Beruni is the author of about 150 scientific works, including such fundamental manuscripts written in the Arabic language as al-Asar al-baqiya min-qurun al-haliya  («The Memoirs of past Generations» – «Chronology») – the manuscript dedicated to the chronology of the ancient and early medieval which describes their religious and national customs and holidays;

Kitab fi-tahrir ma lil-Hind min maqala maqbula fi-l-aql aw ma’ruza (The book describing Indian knowledge intellectually acceptable or rejected» – «India») – the work which is considered encyclopedia of India in which the author described customs, festivities, religion and the science of Indian people;

Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi («The Cannon of Mas’ud») – the manuscript on astronomy devoted to sultan Mas’ud from Ghazna, is the encyclopedia on mathematics and astronomy of the middle ages;

Kitab at-tafhim fi-awail Sino’t at-tanjim («A Book of Elementary Knowledge in the Science of Stars» – «Tafhim») – a medieval textbook on elementary mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography and gagging instruments. The book was translated into the Persian language too;

Maqaka fi istiradj al-awtar fi-d-daira bi-khawas al-hatt al-munhani fikha («Defining Borders of Locations for Specifying the Distance between Settlements» – «Geodesy») –  a manuscript in which the author defines a distance between settlements using the triangulation method;

Kitab tahdid nihayat al-amakin li-taskhih masafat al-masakin («Collection of knowledge for understanding precious things») – «Mineralogy») – the manuscript dedicated to comprehensive description and properties of stones and metals with indication of their deposits;

Kitab as-Saydana fi-t-tib» («Pharmacognosy in medicine») ­– a collection of descriptions of over 1000 drugs of herbal, animal and mineral origin, with their names in different languages.

Contribution to the World Science

Whereas, he was first to introduce a circumference with a single radius to scientific circulation in trigonometry, he took trigonometric lines for functions and introduced the notion of ‘functions’.

In mathematics, he could generalize the famous Indian mathematical problem on calculating of the sum of geometric sequence of 64-degree with the base of 2 to any degree, invented new ways of projecting, triangulation, (measuring distances using the method of solving using triangles), method of square interpolation, and the use of complex trigonometric formulas enabled him to enhance the astronomic researches.

In astronomy, he used to assert a similar fiery nature of the sun and stars, which is different to the dark celestial bodies – planets, mobility of stars and their huge size compared to the size of the Earth, as well as he suggested the idea of gravitation. He maintained the slope angle of ecliptics (a yearly path of the sun) to the equator, calculated the radius of the Earth, and described the colours of the Moon during moon eclipses, and the Sun crown when the sun eclipse happens.

In his manuscript “India” he opened this mysterious for the western world country in terms of its language, ethnic and cultural and historical aspects.

In mineralogy Beruni was first to measure the specific gravities of solid bodies and liquids using his own instrument, based on which he suggested classification of minerals; developed his theory on minerals’ origin and gave paragenetic data.

In geology, he promoted a series of scientific ideas, including the geotechtonical, i.e. the idea of mobility, as well as the geological evolution of  the Amudarya and the Arabian Desert.

In physics, Beruni held weather-forecast, hydrostatic and optical observations and explained the vacuum.

In chemistry, he exposed the theory of transmutation of elementary metals into precious ones, to strong criticism.

In geography, he suggested an extraordinary theory of seas and the idea of building of the first in the world spherical globe of the Earth, as well as he made a hypothetical assumption of the availability of a continent behind the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

In pharmacology, he made a structured collection of all known in that period medicines (drugs) of the mineral, herbal, animal origin, which helped the development of the drug science in the medieval time.

World Recognition

Of all his manuscripts retained to-date, 31 works have been translated into German, English, Russian and Uzbek, 24 of the works have been researched and 3 of the manuscripts have been published in the original Arabic language. Beruni was recognized in the history of sciences as the founder of the new field – geodesy (the science of measuring the relief and surface of land using due instruments.

His name was immortalized in the name of the lunar crater. One of the minor planets of the solar system, discovered in 1986 and registered in Harvard Center under the Ref.N0 9936, was named after him.




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