February 17, 2014
Press-service of MFA of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan adopted a programme on localization of ready products, spare parts and materials for 2014-2016.
President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov approved a programme with his resolution “On programme of localization of ready products, spare parts and materials for 2014-2016” on 4 February 2014.
The resolution was adopted for further deepening localization of ready products and spare parts on the base of local materials, expanding inter-industrial cooperation, interaction between small businesses and large enterprises, creation of new jobs, etc.
The localization programme includes about 1,600 projects, of which are 790 are active projects.
About 70% of products, which will be produced within the localization programme, will fall to share of automobile, oil and gas, chemistry, electrotechnical, agriculture machinery. The estimated volume of import-replacement within the programme will make up US$15.2 billion.
About 24,470 businesses are members of CCI
As of 1 January 2014, number of the members of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Uzbekistan makes up 24,739 business entities.
Representatives of the CCI participated in inspections of 2,457 business entities in 2013, of which 2,186 (89%) were planned and 271 (11%) were unplanned inspections.
In the reporting period, the CCI submitted 33,814 appeals for 708.758 billion soums, US$26.591 million and 6.382 million euros. (Currency rates of CB from 17.02.2014 1$=2215.99 soums)
The chamber also helped 354 business entities to search and purchase mini-equipments and technologies for US$34.114 million in 2013 in order to develop small and private entrepreneurship.
The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Uzbekistan helped in creation of 26 enterprises with foreign capital, including 18 joint ventures and 8 foreign companies.
It also organized 72 visits of 260 representatives of the chamber and business circles of Uzbekistan to abroad. About 216 businesses participated in 41 exhibitions abroad, including in Germany, China, Turkey, Spain, India, Vietnam, Italy, etc. They signed about 111 agreements of cooperation in the result of the visits.
The chamber helped to organize exports of the business entities. In the result, some 116 business enterprises started to export products for over US$108.513 million.
About 140 people participated in short-term educational programmes and internships abroad in 2013.
Eternal Prayer of Silk Strings
It was as if a tearful prayer stopped sounding. Last muffled, vibrating sound subsided as like drowning in silence. Ghijjak finishes its old song.
One of the oldest stringed and bow instruments of Central Asia reminds the customary instrument. Its ball-shaped body is made of pumpkin, wood or other materials, and covered with leather. In ancient instruments strings were of silk, not of metal.
The strings in ghijjak number from two to four, and the range covers about one and a half octaves. It is held vertically, played with a bow with a freely hanged lock of horsehair, the tension of which is regulated by fingers. Sometimes a violin bow is used. In the professional and partly folk musical practice increasingly introduced advanced ghijjak and its varieties – viola, bass-contrabass, designed in the 1940s. Today they make up a leading group of the State Orchestra of National Instruments of Uzbekistan.
There is evidence that the first ghijjak was created by a great poet, scholar and philosopher Al Farobiy. According to legend, Farobiy with his first instrument from a pumpkin with two strings once performed at the feast of the ruler of the city of Paradise. People laughed and then mourned while listening to the melody. But all were delighted with the new novelty.
In the period of Bobur’s reign, a man named Kulmuhammad added the third string to the instrument, and later a great musician Zaytuni-ghijjak performed maqoms on different tones in accompaniment of this instrument. The great poet and thinker Alisher Navoi wrote that ghijjak touches the soul by its eternal prayer, finding an echo in the depths of the heart of every listener. Since the mid-15th century the instrument has gained fame and current name.
Today ghijjak has four strings, but Karakalpak storytellers-bakhshi still play two-stringed ghijjaks.
Teacher on playing ghijjak Murod Toshmukhammedov believes that on this instrument it is possible to play both world classics and traditional maqoms. As the confirmation he immediately performed ‘Hungarian Dance №5’ by Brahms, and after it – traditional national melody ‘Tanovar.’ How this instrument could produce such a heart-rending, plaintive sound?
“Listen to the famous maqom ‘Nasrulloi’, which entered the golden fund of the National Television and Radio Company of Uzbekistan,” offers Murod aka. “You will hear the characteristic vibration – nola, typical only to national instruments. It is namely what that is called a tearful prayer. Back in the 70s of the last century our ghijjak players mostly performed world classics, then traditional melodies. It was hard on a music sheet to describe those shades that are typical to them. Then musical signs were developed, such as nola and kashmi – exponent of suffering inherent in sound of ghijjak. The young people of today have had the opportunity to properly learn the native motifs.
Today on this wonderful instrument melodies of all peoples of the world are performed. Concerts have been created for ghijjak with symphonic orchestra. And while it remains true to the traditions of its people. And in remote settlements even today it is possible to hear that tearful prayer of two strings on something known only to them and a musician.
(Source: “Uzbekistan Today” newspaper)