The very notion – “intensive garden” – means any garden with more than 1,500 trees per hectare. However, many highly-productive commercial gardens these days have 2,500-2,800 trees per hectare and an even higher density (6,000-20,000).
There is one more key peculiarity of an intensive garden, apart from a great number of trees:
A garden planted with elite samplings should yield the first harvest in a year of planting. To secure such a result, it is necessary to select a correct stock-strain combination – a sapling cultivated specifically to meet the requirements of an intensive garden. It goes without saying that early fruiting is an essential factor behind the recoupment of significant investments made in the intensive garden’s creation.
To have a more detailed idea about what an intensive garden looks like, let’s consider its advantages and disadvantages.
In today’s market environment, early fruiting means that the selling price of a popular variety may be 4-5 times as much as that of an older variety.
The efficient exploitation of workforce during a harvest campaign is another advantage of the intensive garden. It is much more convenient to reap apples, standing on the ground or on a low prop than in traditional gardens, where trees are usually high. Higher productivity translates into a lower number of workers required and, consequently, into a tangible reduction of harvest-associated expenditure.
One more advantage of the intensive garden lies in a higher quality of fruits in the entire course of its exploitation.
And the last marked advantage is that pesticides are used more efficiently in intensive gardens than in conventional ones, owing to a higher density of trees per hectare.
And now is the time to highlight the disadvantages of the intensive garden.
To begin with, the making of an intensive garden is very expensive. As a rule, this will require the investment of approximately US $20,000 per hectare within the first year of operation.
Besides, the intensive garden requires high-calibre management. Low-qualified management is likely to pose a very high risk that the funds invested in the garden will never be recouped.
Another disadvantage is the need to retrain the staff for the latter to be capable of working productively in the intensive-garden environment.
As for the creation of intensive gardens in Uzbekistan, it should be observed that its main objective is to meet the needs of the country’s population in fruit and foodstuffs, to further reduce their prices in the market, to augment the national exports potential as well as to create new jobs.
As everywhere else, intensive gardens in Uzbekistan consist of dwarf and semi-dwarf trees. Some 2,000-2,500 saplings are planted on each hectare, which ensures a richer harvest. At the same time, the varieties planted there are first engrafted upon a stock, propagated and transplanted in a nursery garden. As one illustrative example, let’s take apple trees. It is necessary to point out that the apple varieties grown on a dwarf stock begin to bear fruit in the second year since transplantation. In the fourth or fifth year of the garden’s existence, some 40-60 tons of harvest may be gathered in. Each tree grown on a dwarf stock may yield 20-25 kilograms of fruits. Moreover, its fruit-bearing period may last 18-20 years. The harvest from a tree grown on a semi-dwarf stock may reach 45-50 kilograms and even more. Such trees bear fruit during 25-30 years. Each hectare may yield 30-40 tons of harvest. For the projected indicators to be a reality, it is necessary to look after the intensive gardens correctly and opportunely.
The use of drop irrigation benefits the saplings: they grow well and develop quickly. This system of irrigation makes it possible to save up to 60-70 per cent of water, compared with other irrigation methods. What’s more, about 50 per cent of mineral fertilizers may be saved. The drop irrigation helps to maintain the uniformity of fruits’ shape. Other advantages of intensive horticulture are also obvious, in terms of the amount of harvest, its quality and the profit received. Given the fact that the square of irrigated area is limited in the Republic, measures are taken to make intensive gardens on dry-farming land, in highlands and foothills, with a view to reaping heavy harvests there.
Between 2010 and 2014, new gardens have been made in the country on a 50,000-ha area, including intensive gardens, which occupy over 14,000 hectares, and vineyards (23,000 hectares). More than 6 million saplings have been delivered from Poland for domestic intensive gardens. However, despite all the pluses of transition from conventional gardening to intensive horticulture, many local farmers and dekhkans are treating the latter with caution. Some of them, for instance, are embarrassed by an intensive garden’s relatively short period of operation – 18 years at most, while high trees live up to 60 years on the average. On the one hand, their prudence is justifiable, since dwarf and semi-dwarf trees require new skills. As well as that, sizable funds are needed to make a big intensive garden. On the other hand, several decades of looking after a conventional garden don’t necessarily guarantee stable rich harvests in the space of all those years. So, anyway the calculation of profitability won’t be in its favour.
For example, an intensive garden has been made in the Akhmadjon-Khodji Kosoniy farm located in the village of Gurmiron (Kasansay district) in 2012. Polish apple saplings have been planted there on a 14-ha area, with a density coming to 3,000-4,000 saplings per hectare. The drop irrigation system installed in the garden has allowed the farmers to achieve an almost 10-fold reduction of associated expenses. And the next year they could already reap the first harvest. Experts accentuated the importance of such operations as trimming and application of fertilizers, since it has already been proven in practice that the correct and timely trimming facilitates a sapling’s normal growth and contributes to a rise in productivity. In addition, the experts detailed the diseases that may happen to cultivated trees. Taking dried-up trees as an example, they identified a bacterial infection caused by root worm, one of the most widespread pests, and gave a number of concrete recommendations on how to prevent the infection’s further spreading. The experts also provided many pieces of infection-prevention advice. For instance, if garden-shears used to trim an infected tree are dipped into a chloric solution, this may prevent the infection of healthy trees and bushes. Armed with these recommendations, indigenous horticulturists now succeed in running the prosperous gardening business.
It is necessary to emphasize the fact that the Uzbek government is at great pains to back the farms specializing in intensive horticulture, including the granting of numerous preferences and privileges to them.
Today, the cultivation of intensive gardens is profitable, both economically and environmentally, given the country’s favourable climatic conditions and the need to save scanty water resources. In particular, pursuant to Article 367 of the Tax Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan, a legal entity that has introduced a drop irrigation system is exempt from unified land tax for five years. In experts’ view, a well-tended garden may yield up to 50 tons of fruits per hectare. But for this to happen, a horticulturist should be well-grounded in intensive gardening, in addition to all other professional skills and experience. An apple-tree growing on a personal plot differs from that growing in an intensive garden by the development of their root systems. Where the drop irrigation is used, a sapling’s root system doesn’t spread. It can start bearing fruit in the third year after plantation, provided it is well looked after.
The intensive garden’s entire infrastructure consists of the following facilities:
That said, it can be concluded that notwithstanding the appreciable material expenses and attraction of highly qualified specialists, intensive gardening is economically and environmentally sound, provided all the requirements are met. The creation of intensive gardens will boost the sector’s development, increase the supply of quality foodstuffs at reasonable prices to the population and raise the latter’s living standards.
(Source: «Business partner.uz» newspaper)
Navoiazot, a giant producer of mineral fertilizers and consumer goods, struck a deal with Japan’s Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Mitsubishi Corporation to launch a turnkey project on the construction of an ammonia and carbamide plant.
The plant’s full capacity will total 660,000 tons of ammonia and 577,500 tons of carbamide per year with the introduction of technologies by top global licensors. Specifically, for ammonia it will be Denmark’s Haldor Topsoe, and for carbamide synthesis and granulation it will be Italy’s Saipem and the Netherlands’ Uhde Fertilizer Technology.
Once launched, these projects will help to ensure steady production of ammonia for the creation of mineral fertilizers at Navoiazot and halt the operation of obsolete and worn-out equipment while decreasing the use of energy. Moreover, it will provide an opportunity to annually export ready made goods to the tune of over $100 million and create 473 new jobs.
Preliminary estimates reveal that the cost of the project is north of $1 billion, $121.9 million of which will come from Navoiazot, $320 million from the Fund of Reconstruction and Development of Uzbekistan, and the rest from foreign investment and credits. The plant is expected to start working in 2019.
(Source: «Uzbekistan Today» newspaper)
During a recent international round-table on the subject “Strengthening the role and significance of civil society institutions in the democratic renovation and modernization of the country: Uzbekistan’s experience and international practice” held in Tashkent, its participants thoroughly discussed measures undertaken in our country on the development of NGOs, elaboration and implementation of legislative acts in this direction, their interaction with the authorities in the implementation of important programs in socio-political and socio-economic development, preparation of legal and normative acts, protection of the rights and legal interests of the population.
THE EVENT WAS ORGANIZED by the National Association of Nongovernmental Nonprofit Organizations of Uzbekistan (NANNOUz), the Independent Institute for Monitoring Formation of Civil Society, as well as foreign partners – the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the Office of OSCE projects Coordinator in Uzbekistan. The forum was attended by Uzbek MPs, representatives of NGOs, government structures, and international organizations accredited in Uzbekistan, as well as foreign experts from Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, South Korea, India, Turkey and other countries.
During the first day of the round-table the foreign participants visited the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis and the Independent Institute for Monitoring the Formation of Civil Society, got acquainted with the activities of the parliament’s Lower chamber committee on democratic institutions, non-governmental organizations and citizens’ self-governing institutions, the public fund in support of NGOs and other civil society institutions, and the Parliamentary commission on the management of its resources.
The foreign guests showed a particular interest in the activities of the Committee on democratic institutions, citizens’ self-governing bodies and nongovernmental organizations set up within the structure of the legislative chamber, which commenced its work in 2005. This specialized Parliamentary committee enabled to raise to a new level the legislative, monitoring and analytical activities in the sphere of NGOs and establish Parliamentary control over the execution of legislation in this field. It has initiated a number of key laws in the sphere of supporting the civil society development institutions. Specifically, the Law “On the Guarantees of Activities of Nongovernmental Organizations” adopted in 2006.
The guests particularly admitted the transparency, openness and targeted nature, and most importantly, the democratic character of distribution of financial resources allocated annually in support of the NGOs and other civil society institutions from the State budget. The efficient operation of the Public Fund under the Oliy Majlis in this direction not only enabled to ensure a targeted and equal allocation of financial resources, but also had a favorable impact on the improvement of the organizational, technical and economic foundations of the NGOs activities.
Meetings have also been held with the management of the Ecologic Movement of Uzbekistan, the Women’s Committee, the Mahalla Foundation, and the Kamolot Public Youth Movement, in the course of which foreign guests were briefed on the large-scale work conducted by the nongovernmental organizations of the republic on the protection of nature and human health, ensuring the rights and interests of women, raising their socio-economic activities, on an ever-growing role of public organizations in bringing up a harmoniously developed youth, on interaction of NGOs and the citizens’ self-governing bodies in ensuring the comprehensive and targeted social protection of those who need it.
THE FORUM’S PLENARY MEETING has turned into its main event, which was held during its second day. The participants had specifically noted the efficiency of fully justified five principles of the “Uzbek model” of development and the strategy “From a strong state to a strong civil society”. It enabled in a systemic way, stage by state and consistently shape up a favorable organizational and legal foundation for the development of independent and sustainable NGOs which enjoy the support of the broad masses of the population, ensure their effective involvement in building up a law-based democratic state, and formation of a civil society, ensuring the rights, freedoms and interests of citizens, raising the population’s socio-economic activity and the level of its legal literacy.
Several questions arose in the foreign guests: why does the number of NGOs keep growing up in Uzbekistan? Why do people want to voluntarily take upon themselves the responsibility for the solution of one or another issue, why do they display self-dependency? The national experts provided clear-cut answers to them all – supported by concrete facts and figures. Their essence boiled down to bring up the level of the population’s wellbeing, which promote the growth of its civil activity and consolidation of its self-consciousness, which in their turn are interrelated with the high indicators of the country’s socio-economic development. Secondly, major activities are being conducted in Uzbekistan in the sphere of education, raising the population’s level of legal culture and consolidation of its spirituality. And this, in its turn, leads to people’s readiness to display initiative, readiness to be engaged in social activities, and take upon themselves the responsibility for the issues of government importance.
It was underlined at the round-table that a normative and legal foundation for the activities of the NGOs, made up of 200 legislative acts, had been set up in Uzbekistan on the basis of the Constitution of the country, meeting the most modern democratic requirements and international standards.
To be more specific, the country has passed laws “On public associations in the Republic of Uzbekistan”, “On the non-government non-commercial organizations”, “On Public funds”, “On the Guarantees of Activities of non-government non-commercial organizations”, “On charity” and a number of others for ensuring the civil society institutions independent development and for the purpose of maintaining balance of interests in the society, protection of democratic values, rights and freedoms and the legal interests of man. A distinctive feature of the Uzbek model of development is the utmost readiness and aspiration of the state to support the public initiatives directed towards strengthening the citizens’ involvement in their independent decision to solve the urgent issues of the country’s development in close cooperation with the state. In this respect was noted the activities of Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan, the Mahalla Foundation, ‘Soglom Avlod Uchun’ Foundation, Ecosan Foundation, and Nuroniy Foundation, Kamolot Youth Public Movement, the Independent Institute for Monitoring the Formation of Civil Society, the National Association of NGOs of Uzbekistan, the Ecologic Movement of Uzbekistan and other public organizations of the country.
Thus, for example, the round-table participants noted the great role of citizens’ ‘mahalla’ self-governing institute in the preservation and proliferation of national traditions and values, raising the population’s political and legal culture, expansion of the citizen’s participation in managing the state and the society. Being a unique self-governing system, which can boldly be called a prototype of the civil society institution, it has no analogues in the world; it has taken shape in the course of centuries and absorbed the best traditions and values.
There are currently about 10,000 citizens’ self-governing bodies in Uzbekistan. More than 30 functions, related earlier to the authority of the local bodies of power, have been gradually, stage by stage, turned over to mahallas in the process of reforming the system of administration and transition from the strong state to the strong civil society.
The Republican Charity fund ‘Mahalla’, set up in 1992, plays a special role in improving the system of citizens’ self-governing bodies. It conducts activities in all the regions of the country through dissemination of best practices of the best citizens’ assemblies, development of civil society through promotion of expansion of the system of public control over the bodies of state administration, as well as through rendering social support of the population, through turning a mahalla into the center for the development of entrepreneurship and household businesses. Overall, the activities of the ‘Mahalla’ foundation, imbued, in the first place, with ideas of humanism serves Uzbekistan’s further development and raising the level of its population’s wellbeing.
An important step in the cause of supporting the civil society institutes has become the establishment in 2008 of the Public fund under the Oliy Majlis and the Parliamentary commission on managing its resources made up of parliamentarians, representatives of NGOs, as well as Ministries of justice and finance. These moves enabled to form a unique and efficient system of democratic, transparent, open and targeted allocation of financial resources channeled from the State budget in support of civil society institutions in the form of grants, subsidies and social orders.
Within this period more than 47 billion soums (currency rates of CB RU from 11.08.2015 1$= 2585.27 soums ) have been channeled through the Public Fund under the Oliy Majlis for financing the NGO projects. The volume of investments for the development of NGOs has been increased from 4 billion soums in 2009 up to 10 billion soums in 2015. 2.5 thousand socially and publicly significant NGO projects have taken part in the contests of the fund.
THE CONCEPT OF FURTHER DEEPENING DEMOCRATIC REFORMS and formation of civil society in the country proposed by the President of the country and adopted by the parliament in 2010 gave a powerful impetus to boosting the activities of NGOs. This document underscored that NGOs are the most important factor of democratization and modernization of the country.
Laws “On Ecological Control”, “On the Transparency of the Activities of the State Power and Administration” and “On Social Partnership” have been adopted within the framework of the practical implementation of the Concept.
A harmonious system of forms, principles and mechanisms of interaction among the bodies of state power and the civil society institutions and the NGOs, as well as the rights and obligations of the sides has been introduced in compliance with the Law “On Social Partnership”. The law builds up interrelations among them on a qualitatively new level assuming that their partnership is based on the equality of entities carrying out joint activity with consideration of mutual interests and mutual respect for the benefit of the entire country.
Public commissions on social partnership under the local representative bodies, the creation of which were envisaged by this law, were set up in the course of holding the sessions of the Councils of people’s deputies of the regions and the city of Tashkent held in June-July 2015. They include the deputies of the local representative bodies of power, representatives of sub-divisions of relevant administrations, bodies of justice and finance, as well as NGOs.
A specific feature of the current stage in the country’s democratic renovation is characterized by the creation of structures, which ensure their interaction with the civil society institutions, as well as various public councils and working groups with the participation of civil society representatives.
For example, an Inter-departmental working group on the study of the status of observation the human rights and freedoms by law-enforcement and such other state agencies was set up under the Ministry of justice. Included into its composition were also representatives of non-government non-commercial organizations of the country. Ensuring the efficient coordination of law agencies on the protection of human rights and further improving their interaction with the civil society institutions in this sphere was defined as the main objective of its activity.
A Public council was set up under the Ministry of defense of the republic made up of representatives of public associations, funds, trade unions, NGOs, higher educational institutions, mass media, as well as prominent cultural, art and academic figures, sportsmen and government agencies’ experts. The objective of its creation was the development of mechanisms of efficient civil control over the Armed Forces, ensuring the openness and transparency of the activity of Ministry of defense, as well as involvement of citizens and public associations to the formation and implementation of the state policy in the field of defense and military up-building, raising the authority of military professions, improving the system of spiritual and moral, as well as military patriotic upbringing of the servicemen and pre-conscription training of the youth.
A Resolution of the Head of the State “On Additional Measures on Rendering Assistance to the Civil Society Institutions” adopted in 2013 allocated special dynamics to the processes of development of civil society institutions. According to this document as of January 1, 2014 the rates of state fees for the registration of NGOs were reduced by 5 times, the fees collected for registration of their symbols – by 2.5 times. Registration of NGO representative offices and branches in the regions of the republic are carried out without payment of any duties. Additional benefits and privileges are established for public associations of the crippled, veterans, women and youth – fees for the registration of specialized NGOs are paid in the amount of 50% from those established by this resolution. In compliance with it the term for consideration and NGO’s application for the state registration is cut by half without the right of the registering office to extend it, as well as the list of documents presented by the NGO in this connection.
THE NGO’s CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPLEMENTATION of the government’s most important socio-economic programs keeps increasing from one year to another. These programs include “The Year of Attention and Care of the Older Generation”, on the job creation and ensuring the employment of the population, on the further consolidation the population’s reproductive health, mother and child health care in Uzbekistan for the period 2014-2018, a program of action on the protection of the environment in the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2013-2017, etc.
The leaders and activists of the NGOs are members of more than permanently operating Republican inter-departmental commissions, councils, and working groups set up in accordance with the resolutions of the Head of the State, Government and the Parliament of the country.
As of 2013 annually the Cabinet of Ministers with the active involvement of NGOs elaborates and implements joint plans on the development of the civil society institutions. In 2013 within the framework of such undertakings were carried out measures on the improvement of NGOs information-organizational activities; in 2014 they were directed towards raising their public, social and economic activity, while in 2015 – for consolidation of social partnership between the state bodies and the NGOs.
These moves had a positive impact both on the quantitative and the qualitative indicators of civil society institutions’ development.
If merely 95 NGOs operated in the country in 1991, then by the year 200 their number increased up to 2585; and from the 200- till 2010 this number more than doubled. The recent four years marked a similar growth and currently the number of NGOs in Uzbekistan has reached 8240.
As was stressed by the forum participants the reforms in the sphere of formation and development of a civil society in Uzbekistan comply with modern tendencies marked in the advanced democratic countries of the world, level of development of national statehood, consistently developing processes of democratization and liberalization of society, ever-growing level of socio-political and socio-economic involvement of citizens and in their content are spearheaded towards strengthening the legal mechanisms for ensuring the human rights and interests, as well as people’s sovereignty in society.
At all stages of democratic transformations and elaboration of norms and standards Uzbekistan stemmed from the interests of the society and its citizens, from the mentality and national traditions of the people, paying special attention to the deep study of international experience, which has justified itself.
THE ROUND TABLE PARTICIPANTS discussed in detail the questions of public control and the Law “On Introduction of changes and amendments into separate articles of the Constitution of Uzbekistan (articles 32, 78, 93, 98, 103 and 117)” adopted in 2014. It defines public control in the quality of a tool for participation of citizens in managing the affairs of the state and the society. The native specialists told the participants about the process of elaboration the draft law “On Public Control in the Republic of Uzbekistan”. The experts noted that its approval would contribute to setting up a systemic and efficient legal mechanism for carrying out control over the execution of legislative acts by the bodies of state power and administration from the side of the society and civil institutions. The draft law specified the types, forms and subjects of the public control, the point of control, legal mechanisms for its conduct, as well as conditions for emergence of officials’ responsibility for failure to execute the legislative requirements in this sphere.
In the course of the round table the participants got acquainted with the experiences of foreign countries in the sphere of strengthening the role of civil society institutions in the democratization processes. Reports were delivered on the present-day status and prospects for development of civil society in Germany, mechanisms of interaction between the state and civil institutions in Italy, forms and methods of implementation of social partnership in France, Belgium’s experience on interaction between the representative bodies of power and the NGOs, raising the activity of the population in effecting public control in South Korea, etc.
After the plenary session the participants continued their work in small groups, at which they reviewed the issues of efficient interaction between the state and NGOs in the solution of urgent tasks facing the country’s development and expansion of the public’s participation in the realization of efficient public control.
It was underlined at the event that the survey conducted by the “Ijtimoiy fikr” Center for the Study of public opinion in April 2015 revealed that the absolute majority of the citizens of Uzbekistan (94.3%) fully support the major directions of the state policy in the sphere of developing a far-flung network of sustainable and independent NGOs representing the interests of various social groups and broad strata of population, as well as the formation of efficient organizational and legal mechanisms for establishing social partnership between the state bodies of power and the NGOs.
Recommendations on the further perfection of cooperation mechanisms between bodies of state governance and the NGOs, active involvement of the population in the solution of socio-economic development of territories, possible introduction of mechanisms for motivation of socially significant activities of citizens and NGOs, organization of the NGO’s entrepreneurial activities, formation of a complex infrastructure for training and qualification improvement of personnel for the NGO sector, and application of universal criteria for defining the public organizations’ ratings have been elaborated in the course of round table discussions.
About 631,000 children will go to the first classes of schools in Uzbekistan in 2015-2016 academic year, the press service of Ministry of Public Education said.
The ministry said that they will receive bags and 12 types of educational belongings and books on the first lesson as a gift from the President of Uzbekistan.
The ministry noted that 454 titles of books and manuals at the circulation of 25.7 million copies were published.
According to investment programme for 2015, construction and repair works were carried out at 384 schools. Reconstruction works were conducted at 219 schools and capital repair – at 135 schools. Some 29 new schools were constructed. About 341.8 billion soums were directed in this direction (currency rates of CB RU from 11.08.2015 1$= 2585.27 soums ).
About 221 sport halls and five schools of music and art were reconstructed and constructed for the resources of the Fund for development of children sport for 239.2 billion soums.
Some 6,775 sets of information-communication equipment for studying foreign languages in 1-4 classes of general schools of Uzbekistan were purchased for US$13.5 million.
About 2,800 sets of computer equipments were purchased for 8-9 classes. According to the ministry, 277 sets of computers were purchased due to budget resources, 1,220 sets – for grants of international organizations and 1,300 sets – grant of the Government of China.
Following the triumphant victory of Diera Keldierova in the starting day of the world championship in judo among cadets in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), on the second day Jasur Sodykov and Sherkhon Turabaev won two more bronze medals in the weight category up to 73 kg and 81 kg. The number of applicants for a victory confirms the high level of the competition. In the weight category up to 73 kg, for example, fought 40 judokas.
Jasur confidently won in the qualifying matches three of them: the representatives of Russia, Georgia, and Portugal. In the semifinals, Vasili Balampanashvili from Greece, who eventually became the world champion, broke the resistance of our judo athlete. It allowed to our compatriot to continue the fight. In the battle for the “bronze” the opportunity to take revenge Jasur did not failed, and he won over the representative of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Philip Stojak. The result, Jasur Sodykov – bronze medalist of the world. The way to a bronze medal for Sherkhon Turabaeva formed of victories over the athletes from Japan, Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands.
On the eve, the seventh line took our judoka Golibjon Sulaimonov in weight category up to 66 kg. Thus, at the moment the national team of Uzbekistan with one gold and two bronze medals occupies sixth place in team classification.
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