Legacy of the great thinkers

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Sentabr 7, 2017

Legacy of the great thinkers

August 28, in accordance with the Cabinet of Ministers in Samarkand, opens an international scientific conference «Central Asian Renaissance in the history of world civilization», aimed at in-depth study and understanding of the eternal significance of the historical heritage of researchers and thinkers in the region, a broad familiarization of the national and world community with their invaluable contribution to the development of science. On the eve of such a large-scale event, «PV» starts publishing materials of leading scientists of Uzbekistan on this topic.
In the context of complex globalization processes, international humanitarian cooperation – a key aspect of the national, regional and global analogue and sustainable development – plays an important role which is included in the treasury of the world civilization. The entire planet is known for its outstanding discoveries in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, geodesy, mineralogy, pharmacology, medicine, society, such great ancestors as Muhammad al-Khwarizmi, Abu Raikhan Beruni, Abu Ali ibn Sina, Mirzo Ulugbek and many others. Thus, with the name Khorezmi the first use of the concepts algorithm and zero, the decimal system is connected, Ulugbek in the 15th century built an observatory in Samarkand and created there star charts that differed with particular accuracy. The work of Avicenna «Canon of Medical Science» for about 500 years was studied by medical students in the most famous European universities.
The theory and practice of the state and society was also the subject of discussion among many thinkers and statesmen of Central Asia. Thus, Farabi was the first of the medieval thinkers to develop the doctrine of the features and structure of social life. In his «Treatise on the views of the inhabitants of a virtuous city,» he noted that the government of the country is of two types: the first is leading the inhabitants to true happiness and the second to illusory, false. The great vizier of the Seljuk state, Nizam ul-Mulk, described in detail the principles of state administration, the rules of upbringing, the moral and functional qualities of lords and officials, and the outstanding poet Alisher Navoi, the qualities of a «perfect man and ruler.» In many historical sources, it is reported that it is necessary to educate high moral qualities and education of officials, devotion to serving their state, which testifies to the serious requirements for the training of personnel for conducting active intra- and interstate relations. The views of our thinkers had a considerable influence on their European colleagues.
It is also worth noting the outstanding sixties, including diplomatic ones, of Amir Temur, which contributed to the strengthening of the dialogue between the states of the West and the East. His words «advice, prudence, deliberations are ten times more useful in politics than the strength of weapons» are not only the quintessence of all his activities, but also relevant for the present, since they contain the principle of preventive diplomacy, when disputes and conflict situations are resolved politically. These ideas are taken as the basis of the UN and other international and regional organizations.
The great Indian statesman and thinker Jawaharlal Nehru stressed that the dynasty founded by Babur played a huge role in the history of the country’s development. The Baburids have made a great contribution not only to strengthening national statehood, but also inter-ethnic and inter-confessional tolerance. The commonality of historical processes has become an important factor in establishing close ties between our countries.
Another prominent representative of our science is Beruni. Possessing encyclopaedic knowledge, he could conduct a deeply scientific discussion with a specialist of any industry – from mathematics and astronomy to poetry and history. He was excellent in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Sogdian, Syriac, Hebrew, Greek and other languages. Long before the discovery of the American continent, he predicted its existence. All his works on the traditions, culture and history of other peoples are imbued with the spirit of the highest respect for them. Famous American professor Frederic Starr notes that Beruni was a bridge between the ancient world and European researchers, he made his discoveries due to the systematic and rigorous application of logical reflections, but not limited to religious dogmas and secular concepts.
Also Starr points out that for several centuries Central Asia was the intellectual hub of the world. The thinkers of the region played a huge role in the development of mutual exchange of achievements in the material and spiritual culture of the peoples of the East and West. At that time, the works of Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, Socrates, Hippocrates were translated into Arabic, many of them entered later in European culture. In turn, the works of Al-Khorezmi, Ferghani, Farabi, Ibn Sina were translated into Latin, replenishing the knowledge of Europeans about mathematics, astronomy, medicine.
According to the famous historian of economics, Professor Andrew Gunther Frank, Central Asia has been, for centuries, an important link between different parts of the continent, as well as Asia and Europe. It defines the status of the region, using the expression «Centrality of Central Asia» – the centrality of Central Asia. German scientist Adam Metz also notes that the humanism of the medieval European Renaissance would not have been possible without an early explosion of the study of philosophy on our land. All this proves the inconsistency of various one-sidedly oriented concepts of development of the East and the West, confirms the unity and interconnectedness of the historical f processes of various regions of the world.
Thus, for a long time this ancient land remained the center of enlightenment and science, one of the centers of world civilization, and the desire for knowledge has always been an integral part of the mentality of our people. The greatest merit of medieval thinkers is that they expressed ideas about universal, public and state development based on the ideas of humanism, enlightenment and mutual respect. These scientists were distinguished by high academic mobility and played a significant role in the development of the sciences in various countries of the East, the expansion of interchange between regions and continents and the development of world civilization as a whole.
Modern Uzbekistan continues the development of intercultural and intercivilizational dialogue. For many centuries of coexistence of representatives of various nations and faiths there were established traditions of mutual respect and tolerance. Our and other countries have become active participants in various projects for the revival of the Great Silk Road, which stimulate economic and political cooperation with the states of Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. In the deepening of this dialogue, the role of the historical heritage is enormous. His comprehension helps in understanding the commonality of peoples and global processes and understanding future prospects.